2021, 43 (4): 501-506
SUN Xingya,LIU Xin
Objective To investigate the effects of osthole on the proliferation,apoptosis,and autophagy of human tongue cancer Tca8113 cells and explore its possible mechanism of action. Methods Tca8113 cells were cultured in vitro and divided into a control group without drugs and the experimental groups with 40,80,120,and 160 μmol/L osthole.The inhibitory effect of osthole on the proliferation of Tca8113 cells was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and colony formation assay.Hoechst33342 staining method and annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide method were employed to detect the effect of osthole on the apoptosis of Tca8113 cells within 24 hours.Western blot was performed to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins(Bcl-2,Bax,and cleaved caspase-3)and autophagy-related proteins(LC3 and p62)in Tca8113 cells exposed to osthole. Results Osthole significantly inhibited the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of Tca8113 cells in a concentration-dependent manner,and it reduced the cell colony formation.Western blot results showed that osthole could up-regulate the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and down-regulate that of Bcl-2.At the same time,it increased the expression of LC3Ⅱ and P62 and reduced that of LC3Ⅰ. Conclusion Osthole may inhibit the proliferation of Tca8113 cells by promoting cell apoptosis and blocking autophagy flow to inhibit autophagy.
2021, 43 (4): 507-512
XIE Hongxiang,SHEN Yan,PANG Zhenzhen,SUN Bin,WANG Zhenni,XIE Shuhui,ZHOU Yonglie
Objective To explore the feasibility of preheating in 41 ℃ water bath for 30 minutes to correct the red blood cell parameters in the specimens containing high-titer cold agglutinins(CAs). Methods Two specimens containing high-titer CAs were selected during work,and the parameters of complete blood count at room temperature or after preheating in 37 ℃ or 41 ℃ water bath were compared.The smears were stained,and the distribution of red blood cells was observed with a microscope.Further,74 specimens without CAs were collected for complete blood count,and then the test results at room temperature and after preheating at 41 ℃ were compared. Results At room temperature,the specimens containing high-titer CAs showed significantly reduced red blood cell count(RBC)and hematocrit(HCT),abnormally increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin(MCH)and mean cell hemoglobin concentration(MCHC),abnormal percents of hemoglobin(HGB)and RBC,and aggregation of a large number of red blood cells.After being preheated at 37 ℃ for a certain time,the specimens demonstrated obviously improved parameters while still aggregation of a small number of red blood cells.After being preheated at 41 ℃ for 30 minutes,the specimens showed significantly increased RBC,normal HCT,MCH,and MCHC,and evenly distributed red blood cells.The 74 specimens without CAs showed the comparability was ≥80% between room temperature and preheating at 41 ℃ for 30 minutes or 60 minutes. Conclusion We can preheat the specimens containing high-titer CAs in a water bath at 41 ℃ to obtain accurate red blood cell parameters.
2021, 43 (4): 513-520
XU Hongyan,LIU Yaqian,LIU Kaibo,QI Qingqing,FENG Xinglin
Objective To understand the current situation and predict the trends in number and composition of prenatal ultrasound screening staff in Beijing. Methods We analyzed the region,age,professional title and other characteristics of prenatal ultrasound screening personnel in Beijing during 2007-2015.We then built an ARIMA model basing on the current situation to predict the number and composition of the staff in 2016-2020. Results The number of prenatal ultrasound screening staff showed an upward trend in 2007-2020 and was predicted to reach 1269 in 2020.During this period,the educational achievement and professional title of the staff showed a downward trend,and the working years became shorter,mainly below 5 years.The proportion of resident doctors remained at 26.6%,and that of the staff receiving further education would reach 43.2% by the end of 2020. Conclusion The prediction under ARIMA model suggests that efforts should be made to strengthen the training of young doctors and provide them opportunities for further study.
2021, 43 (4): 521-530
HE Yuan,SHI Chunrui,GUANG Qi,LUO Zhicheng,XI Qun,HAN Lei
Objective To quantitatively evaluate the associations of PM2.5,PM10,NO2,and SO2 concentrations with the outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis in Lanzhou. Methods The data of outpatient visits,together with meteorological data and air pollutant data,from January 2013 to December 2017 were collected.The generalized additive model based on Poisson distribution was employed to study the lag effects of PM2.5,PM10,NO2,and SO2 concentrations on the visits of outpatients,with the seasonal and long-term trends and day-of-the-week effect controlled. Results The results of the single pollutant model showed that PM2.5 and PM10 had the most obvious while still insignificant impact on the outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis on the current day(lag0).NO2 also had the most obvious impact in the case of lag0 and showed a lag effect.For each 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 concentration,the excess risk(ER)of outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis was 1.95%(95% CI=1.09%-2.82%,P=0.01).SO2 had the most significant effect on lag6,and the outpatient visits increased by 1.55%(95% CI=0.48%-2.54%)for every 10 μg/m3 rise in SO2 concentration(P=0.02).Females were more sensitive to PM10 and SO2 than males.For every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 and SO2,the female outpatient visits increased by 0.02% and 2.47%,respectively.Males were sensitive to PM2.5 and NO2,and the every 10 μg/m3 rise in PM2.5 and NO2 increased male outpatient visits by 0.47% and 1.78%,respectively.Gaseous pollutants(NO2 and SO2)had more significant effect on people ≤2 years old than on those of other ages.Every 10 μg/m3 rise in NO2 and SO2 would increase the ≤2-year-old outpatient visits by 2.35% and 1.57%,respectively(P=0.02).People of 13-59 years old were sensitive to NO2 concentration,and every 10 μg/m3 rise in NO2 concentration increased their visits by 1.39%.NO2 affected the outpatient visits during the cold and warm seasons,with the ER values of 2.35% and 1.89%,respectively(P=0.01).Particulate matter(PM2.5 and PM10)had the most obvious yet insignificant association with the outpatient visits in winter.The interactions between PM2.5 and NO2,between PM10 and NO2,and between SO2 and NO2 affected the total outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis.The results of double pollutant model showed that in the presence of PM2.5,PM10,or SO2,the effect of NO2 on the outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis enhanced compared with that predicted by single pollutant model(P=0.01). Conclusion The air pollutants(PM2.5,PM10,NO2,and SO2)in Lanzhou were closely related to the outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis,and the increased concentrations of NO2 and SO2 was more likely to increase the risk of atopic dermatitis.
2021, 43 (4): 531-535
XIE Chaoyun,CHEN Dong,LIU Fuxiang
Objective To explore the factors related to tympanic membrane perforation in children with acute suppurative otitis media,and to provide reference for clinical practice. Methods We reviewed the clinical data of 1274 children with acute suppurative otitis media from February 2017 to May 2020,and analyzed the factors related to tympanic membrane perforation. Results Tympanic membrane perforation occurred in 67 out of the 1274 children with acute suppurative otitis media,with the incidence of 5.27%.The univariate analysis showed that 11 factors including the duration of onset(t=2.381,P=0.017),upper respiratory tract infection(χ2=12.228,P=0.000),pulmonary infection(χ2=5.242, P=0.022),chronic sinusitis(χ2=12.715,P=0.000),adenoid hypertrophy(χ2=4.783,P=0.029),tympanic empyema(χ2=16.020,P=0.000),the duration of using antibiotics(t=-2.277,P=0.025),combined use of antibiotics(χ2=5.587,P=0.018),the time from onset to selection of antibiotics according to drug sensitivity(t=3.716,P=0.000),procalcitonin(t=2.599,P=0.009),and white blood cell count in peripheral blood(t=2.196,P=0.031)were related to tympanic membrane perforation in children with acute suppurative otitis media.The multivariate logistic analysis showed that the duration of onset(OR=4.854,95% CI=2.675-8.806,P=0.000),upper respiratory tract infection(OR=6.506,95% CI=3.213-13.171,P=0.000),chronic sinusitis(OR=7.866,95% CI=3.780-16.370,P=0.000),tympanic empyema(OR=2.625,95% CI=1.442-4.777,P=0.002),and time from onset to selection of antibiotics according to drug sensitivity(OR=5.107,95% CI=2.129-12.248,P=0.000)were independent risk factors for tympanic membrane perforation in children with acute suppurative otitis media. Conclusion The incidence of tympanic membrane perforation in children with acute suppurative otitis media can be reduced by early treatment,keeping the Eustachian tube unobstructed,draining the tympanic cavity,preventing chronic sinusitis and upper respiratory tract infection,early drug sensitivity test,and selection of antibiotics based on the test results.
2021, 43 (4): 536-544
LIU Jiangfeng,YANG Yehong,WU Yue,YANG Juntao
Objective To obtain the metabolome profiles in liver and serum of mice during normal aging. Methods The liver and serum samples of ten 2-month-old mice and ten 18-month-old C57BL/6J mice under physiological conditions were collected.Metabolites were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.The overall assessment,differential screening,and functional analysis were performed with the filtered high-quality data. Results In the negative-ion mode and positive-ion mode,242 and 399 metabolites were identified in the liver and 265 and 230 in serum,respectively.The difference of metabolome between young and old mice was moderate.The upregulated metabolites identified in aging liver were related to the metabolism of riboflavin,glucose,and arachidonic acid,while the downregulated ones were associated with the metabolism of pyrimidine,purine,glycerophospholipid,glutathione,and nicotinamide.Altered metabolites in serum during aging were involved in a variety of nucleic acid metabolism-related pathways,such as pyrimidine metabolism,purine metabolism,one carbon pool by folate,and amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism. Conclusions The metabolome profiles of mouse liver and serum both revealed dysregulated nucleic acid metabolism pathways during normal aging.This study provides metabolome data for further research on aging-associated mechanism and may support the discovery of intervention methods for aging.
2021, 43 (4): 545-550
CHEN Hui,ZHOU Jing,HUANG Qian,SI Mingyu,SU Xiaoyou,LI Jing
Objective To investigate the knowledge about human papillomavirus(HPV)and its vaccines,HPV vaccination status,and vaccination willingness among the freshmen majoring in liberal arts,sciences,and medicine in western China,so as to provide evidence-based suggestions for health education among university students and to increase their vaccination. Methods By convenience sampling,stratified sampling,and cluster sampling,an online questionnaire survey was conducted among freshmen in a comprehensive university in Chengdu.The differences among the groups were compared by χ2 test,and non-conditional logistic regression was performed to analyze the influencing factors of willingness to vaccination. Results A total of 881 participants were included in this study,including 419 males and 462 females.The vaccination rate of females was 3.5%(16/462).Of all the university students,59.1%,67.5%,and 56.3% had heard of HPV,HPV-related diseases,and HPV vaccines,respectively,and only 10.4%,10.6%,and 27.8% knew “HPV infection usually does not cause symptoms”,“HPV infection is usually transient and mostly spontaneous regressive”,and “HPV infection is very common”.Females and medical students had more related knowledge than males and non-medical students(P=0.035,P=0.021).Of all the university students,65.7% were willing to be vaccinated against HPV.The high cost of vaccination(50.8%),worry about the side effects adverse reaction(46.3%),and lack of sexual life(43.4%)were the main reasons for the reluctance to be vaccinated.Gender,education background of parents,history of self-financed vaccination,attitude towards premarital sexual behavior,history of sexual behavior,and knowledge of HPV were the influencing factors of vaccination willingness. Conclusions The freshmen had a low rate of HPV vaccination and limited detailed knowledge about HPV and its vaccines.Health education campaign is urgently called for among university students regarding HPV infection as well as the safety,effectiveness,and side effects of HPV vaccines.More attention should be paid to the health education of male and non-medical students.
2021, 43 (4): 551-557
HUANG Feiling,HU Huiying,ZHANG Suhan,LI Li,ZHANG Li,CHEN Xiaoxia,ZHANG Chuci,ZHONG Hongxiu,YAO Aimin,LIU Cuiying,ZHANG Ningzhi,XUE Xiaowen,MA Liangkun
Objective To explore the performance of mobile health platform for standardized management of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted,in which 295 women with GDM were randomized into two groups(traditional management group and mobile health management group)by a computer-generated sequence.The traditional management group accepted standardized GDM management,and the mobile health management group was supplemented by mobile health management based on the standardized management.The glycemic control rate and the incidences of low birth weight,macrosomia,preterm birth,premature rupture of membranes,postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean section,neonatal asphyxia,malformation,and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit were compared between the two groups. Results The glycemic control rate in mobile health management group was significantly higher than that in the traditional management group [(67.22±22.76)% vs.(60.69±21.28)%,P=0.004].The incidences of low birth weight,macrosomia,preterm birth,premature rupture of membranes,postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean section,neonatal asphyxia,malformation,and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit demonstrated no significant differences between groups(all P > 0.05). Conclusions Mobile health applied in standardized management is conducive to the glycemic control of GDM women,whereas it does not significantly improve the pregnancy outcomes.Due to the short time of intervention,the effects of mobile health on pregnancy outcomes need further study.
2021, 43 (4): 558-562
CAO Jian,WANG Zhiwei,DING Ning,WANG Kefei,JIN Zhengyu,LI Shanqing
Objective To investigate the application value of indocyanine green(ICG)in the localization of small pulmonary nodules in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery(VATS). Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 45 patients with small nodules(diameter<1 cm)who received preoperative localization with ICG and underwent VATS wedge resection from October 2020 to February 2021.The data for analysis included patients age,nodule diameter,distance from the parietal pleura,nodule density,success rate of localization,time of localization,incidence of complications,and pathological findings. Results The success rate of localization was 100%.The average nodule size was 6.3 mm,and the nodules were(10±11)mm from the parietal pleura.After localization of 59 nodules,13(22.0%)cases were found to have mild pneumothorax,and 4(6.7%)cases were found to have mild hemorrhage.The success rate of operation was 100%,and 43(72.9%)cases were confirmed adenocarcinoma by postoperative pathology. Conclusion ICG has a high success rate and good safety in the localization of small pulmonary nodules in VATS.
2021, 43 (4): 563-570
DU Tiekuan,NING Xiaohong,ZHU Huadong,SHI Di,LI Jiayi
Objective To understand the cognition and related abilities of emergency physicians for palliative care in China. Methods A total of 115 emergency physicians were selected by convenient sampling to conduct a questionnaire survey.The questionnaire included the physicians’ basic information,feelings and attitudes towards end-stage patients and their families,cognition of palliative care,and personal ability for palliative care. Results 25.2%,59.1%,and 15.7% of the emergency physicians considered they had “no understanding”,“partial understanding”,and “full understanding” of palliative care,respectively.32(27.8%)physicians participated in palliative care-related lectures and they showed higher self-rated cognition levels(P=0.002).Wechat(39.1%),media(36.5%),and word of mouth(33.0%)were the main ways for emergency physicians to acquire the knowledge of palliative care.Among the emergency physicians,68.7% felt “powerless” in the face of end-stage patients,and 60.9% and 59.1% felt tangled and worried about death causing disputes,respectively.The emergency physicians had low self-rated ability in relieving dyspnea after removal of ventilator[3(2,4)]and eliminating the fear of death[3(3,4)].The self-rated cognition level of emergency physicians to palliative care was positively correlated with most of the self-rated ability indexes. Conclusions Lectures have a significant impact on emergency physicians’ cognition level of palliative care.Most of the self-rated indexes of palliative care ability are positively correlated with the cognition level of palliative care.In the face of end-stage patients,most of the emergency physicians are powerless,tangled,and worried about disputes,and their self-rated indexes in relieving dyspnea after removal of ventilator and eliminating the fear of death are low,which necessitates relevant training.
2021, 43 (4): 571-578
WANG Tongbo,ZHOU Hong,ZHANG Xiaojie,SUN Chongyuan,GUO Chunguang,CHEN Yingtai,ZHOU Aiping,JIN Jing,ZHAO Dongbing
Objective To investigate the related factors of pathological complete response(pCR)of patients with gastric cancer treated by neoadjuvant therapy and resection,and to analyze the risk factors of prognosis. Methods The clinical and pathological data of 490 patients with gastric cancer who received neoadjuvant therapy followed by radical gastrectomy from January to December in 2008 were retrospectively analyzed.Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors affecting pCR and prognosis. Results Among the 490 patients,41 achieved pCR,and the overall pCR rate was 8.3%(41/490).The pCR rate was 16.0% in the neoadjuvant chemoradiation group and 6.4% in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group.The results of multivariate analysis showed that neoadjuvant chemoradiation(OR=4.401,95% CI=2.023-9.574,P<0.001)and preoperative therapeutic response as partial response(OR=40.492,95% CI=5.366-305.572,P<0.001)were independent predictors of pCR after neoadjuvant therapy.Multivariate analysis of prognosis showed that poorly differentiated tumor(HR=1.809,95% CI=1.104-2.964,P=0.019),gastric cardia-fundus-body tumor(HR=2.025,95% CI=1.497-2.739,P<0.001),≤15 intraoperative dissected lymph nodes(HR=1.482,95% CI=1.059-2.073,P=0.022),and postoperative complications(HR=1.625,95% CI=1.156-2.285,P=0.005)were independent risk factors for prognosis,while pCR(HR=0.153,95% CI=0.048-0.484,P=0.001)and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy(HR=0.589,95% CI=0.421-0.823,P<0.001)were independent protective factors of prognosis. Conclusions Patients who achieved pCR after neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced gastric cancer might have promising long-term survival,and pCR is an independent predictor for overall survival.Compared with chemotherapy alone,preoperative chemoradiotherapy can significantly improve the pCR rate of patients with locally advanced gastric cancer.
2021, 43 (4): 579-583
ZHANG Xiaohuan,LIU Mengqi,HU Min,WANG Yanyi,CHEN Zhiye
Objective To evaluate lateral pterygoid muscle(LPM)contraction in the patients with temporomandibular disorders(TMD)based on 3D-T2 weighted imaging(3D-T2WI).Multiplanar reconstruction(MPR)was employed to measure the length of LPM in the images taken in closed-and open-mouth positions. Methods Seventeen TMD patients [age of(29.82±10.70)years,males/females=8/9] and 13 normal volunteers [control,age of(23.54±3.31)years,males/females=6/7] received 3D-T2WI of the temporomandibular joints in closed-and open-mouth positions from November 2019 to April 2020 in Department of Radiology,Hainan Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital.According to the position of the discs,the subjects were classified into the following groups:TMD with disc displacement without reduction(TMD-DDwoR),TMD with disc displacement with reduction(TMD-DDwR),TMD without disc displacement(TMDwoDD),and normal control without disc displacement(NCwoDD).MPR was employed to measure the maximal length of the superior belly of LPM.One-way analysis of variance,receiver operating characteristic curve,and permutation test were employed for the statistical analyses. Results The contraction of LPM was significantly shorter in TMD-DDwoR group [(3.36±1.96)mm] than in TMDwoDD group [(7.90±3.95)mm],NCwoDD group [(8.77±3.13)mm](F=12.891,P=0.000),and TMD-DDwR group[(7.12±3.69)mm](χ2=5.314,P=0.031). Conclusion This study confirmed that the contraction of LPM decreased in patients with TMD-DDwoR,which provided imaging evidence for the study of disc displacement mechanism in TMD patients.
2021, 43 (4): 584-589
YAN Lin,SONG Qing,XIAO Jing,ZHANG Ying,LUO Yukun
Objective To investigate the clinical value of core-needle biopsy(CNB)for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma(PTMC)after radiofrequency ablation(RFA). Methods A total of 190 patients(including 142 females and 48 males,20-74 years old)with unifocal low-risk PTMCs[mean volume of(106.29±96.15)mm3]treated by RFA from June 2016 to September 2018 were evaluated in this study.During the RFA procedure,enlarged ablation was performed.Patients were followed up 1,3,6,12 months after RFA and every 6 months thereafter.The volume of ablation area and the volume reduction ratio(VRR)were calculated.To evaluate the ablation performance,CNB was performed to the central zone,the peripheral zone,and surrounding thyroid parenchyma 3 or 6 months after RFA. Results The mean follow-up time was(30.04±12.41)months.The mean volume of tumor significantly decreased from(106.29±96.15)mm3 to(1.47±8.00)mm3.Two ablated tumors were diagnosed to have residue by CNB and underwent additional RFA.No recurrence,metastatic lymph nodes,or distal metastasis were found during the follow-up.All the patients were tolerable to RFA and CNB procedure. Conclusion CNB can be used to evaluate the ablation performance after RFA for low-risk PTMC.
2021, 43 (4): 590-594
LI Yizhou,ZHANG Xin,ZHANG Aijin,LEI Zhenghui,ZHANG Yingying,FENG Bo,ZHAO Jizhi,KONG Yaqun,AN Pugen,YANG Wendong
Objective To investigate the oral health status and awareness of urban children in Lhasa,aiming to provide a data basis for the prevention and treatment of children’s caries and the promotion of oral health education. Methods A total of 504 Tibetan students were selected by cluster sampling from 2 primary schools in Chengguan District of Lhasa.All the participants were required to take oral health examination and complete a questionnaire about oral health awareness and behavior. Results The caries prevalence rate and mean decayed-missing-filled tooth(DMFT)of permanent teeth were 75.00% and 2.18±1.91,respectively.The rates of pit and fissure sealant and filling of permanent teeth were 3.77% and 6.81%,respectively.The caries prevalence rate of first permanent molars was 47.62%.The mean DMFT of permanent teeth and caries prevalence rate of first permanent molar were significantly higher in female group(P=0.001 and P=0.007,respectively).The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis was 61.51%,and the detection rate of dental calculus was 71.83%.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that prevalence of caries was influenced by many independent factors including gender,oral health awareness,intention of dental intervention,and dental experience. Conclusion High caries prevalence rate,low filling rate,and poor oral hygiene and health awareness were found among the primary school students in Lhasa,which require continuous dentistry investment and oral health education for the local students and their parents.
2021, 43 (4): 595-602
LI Xuan,WANG Wenpeng,ZHOU Min,XU Xiaorui,GAO Jizhao
Objective To study the expression and significance of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor(LGR)5/6 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL). Methods A total of 39 children who had ALL and achieved complete remission on day 33 after induction therapy were enrolled.The children before induction therapy were considered as the incipient group,and those who achieved complete remission on day 33 by induction therapy were considered as the remission group.According to the degree of risk,they were assigned into 3 groups:low-risk(n=16),intermediate-risk(n=9),and high-risk(n=14)groups.A total of 30 children with immune thrombocytopenia were taken as the control group.From each child in the incipient group,remission group,and control group,3 ml bone marrow sample was collected.Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction was conducted to measure the mRNA expression of LGR5 and LGR6 in the blood cells of bone marrow.Western blot was employed to measure the protein expression of LGR5 and LGR6 in blood cells of bone marrow. Results Compared with the control(mRNA:1.541±0.409,protein:0.138±0.041)and remission(mRNA:1.418±0.324,protein:0.130±0.033)groups,the incipient group had significantly lower mRNA(0.850±0.279)and protein(0.083±0.027)expression of LGR5(PmRNA=0.000,Pprotein=0.000).Compared with the control(mRNA:0.928±0.373,protein:0.094±0.037)and remission(mRNA:0.886±0.390,protein:0.111±0.039)groups,the incipient group had significantly higher mRNA(2.444±1.160)and protein(0.298±0.088)expression of LGR6(PmRNA=0.000,Pprotein=0.000).In the incipient groups,low-risk children showed significantly higher mRNA(1.004±0.284)and protein(0.097±0.030)expression of LGR5 than the intermediate-risk children(mRNA:0.728±0.239,protein:0.071±0.022)and high-risk children(mRNA:0.752±0.222,protein:0.074±0.020)(PmRNA=0.012,Pprotein=0.016);low-risk children showed significantly lower mRNA(1.822±0.979)and protein(0.245±0.077)expression of LGR6 than the intermediate-risk children(mRNA:2.954±1.039,protein:0.338±0.081)and high-risk children(mRNA:2.827±1.165,protein:0.333±0.075)(PmRNA=0.016,Pprotein=0.004).In the remission groups,low-risk children showed significantly higher mRNA(1.597±0.329)and protein(0.150±0.035)expression of LGR5 than the intermediate-risk children(mRNA:1.277±0.288,protein:0.117±0.029)and high-risk children(mRNA:1.305±0.253,protein:0.116±0.023)(PmRNA=0.012,Pprotein=0.006);low-risk children showed significantly lower mRNA(0.662±0.334)and protein(0.089±0.034)expression of LGR6 than the intermediate-risk children(mRNA:1.066±0.273,protein:0.130±0.033)and high-risk children(mRNA:1.027±0.405,protein:0.126±0.038)(PmRNA=0.007,Pprotein=0.007). Conclusion The expression of LGR5 and LGR6 are closely related to the occurrence and risk of childhood ALL,but its mechanism needs further study.
2021, 43 (4): 607-611
SUN Chao,LEI Tiechi
There is growing evidence that dermal papilla cells(DPCs)act as the organizing center to induce the cyclic hair regeneration.On one hand,DPCs secrete cytokines or growth factors to regulate the differentiation,proliferation,and migration of epithelial stem cells(EpSCs)and melanocyte stem cells(MeSCs)residing in the bulge region.On the other hand,DPCs manipulate the microenvironment(also termed as niche)for both EpSCs and MeSCs,such as the size of dermal papilla,the distance between dermal papilla and the bulge region,and the lymphatic drainage and sympathetic nerve innervation surrounding the bulge region,thereby orchestrating the cycling hair growth.Recent studies have demonstrated at least four subpopulations existing in dermal papillae,which induce the unilineage transit-amplifying epithelial cells to form the concentric multilayers of hair shafts and sheaths.In addition,emerging study has indicated that sustained psychological stress potentially leads to hyperactivation of the sympathetic nerves that innervate the bulge region.The large amount of norepinephrine released by the nerve endings forces MeSCs to rapidly and abnormally proliferate,resultantly causing the depletion of MeSC pool and the loss of hair pigment.Understanding the molecular regulation of hair growth and pigmentation by DPCs holds substantial promise for the future use of cultured DPCs in vitro to treat hair loss.
2021, 43 (4): 612-619
LI Shuaini,NI Xiaosha,HU Wenyi,GAO Yating,LIN Ying,LOU Yan
Adaptive intervention(AI)is a methodology which dynamically evaluates adaptive variables at decision points and timely adjusts and develops tailored strategies to meet individual needs.The study reviewed the origin and development and elaborated the core elements(including intervention outcomes,intervention options,decision points,tailoring variables,and decision rules)and the classification of AI.Based on the literature,the key points of the design and implementation of AI were prospected,which can provide evidence for the research and development of health behavior intervention.
2021, 43 (4): 620-627
JIANG Weixi,REN Jianli
Multi-drug resistance(MDR)refers to the loss of sensitivity of tumor cells to traditional chemotherapeutics agents under the mediation of various mechanisms,resulting in the reduction of chemotherapy efficacy.Current studies suggest that a variety of factors,including cell membrane transporter-mediated efflux of anti-tumor drugs,special microenvironment in tumor tissue,DNA self-repair and anti-apoptotic process,and epithelial-mesenchymal cell transformation,may contribute to the formation of MDR.Cell membrane transporter-mediated drug efflux refers to an increase in the amount of anti-tumor drug pumped out of the cell through the up-regulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter on tumor cell membrane,which reduces the concentration of the drug in the cell,thus forming MDR.An effective method to inhibit the efflux pump caused by overexpression of membrane transporters plays an important role in overcoming MDR.As a promising drug delivery system,multifunctional nanoparticles have demonstrated many advantages in antitumor therapy.Meanwhile,nanoparticles with tailored design are capable of overcoming MDR when combined with a variety of strategies.This paper described in detail the studies relevant to the use of multifunctional nano-sized drug delivery system combined with different strategies,such as co-delivery of agents,external responsiveness or target modification for intervention with efflux pump in order to reverse MDR.This paper provides reference for the development of nano-sized drug delivery system and the formulation of reversal strategy in the future.
2021, 43 (4): 628-633
CHEN Wenyi,QIAN Yue,CHEN Tianyun,GU Xiaoping
Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with neuroinflammation,oxidative stress,and aging,which can lead to cognitive and motor dysfunctions.Recent studies suggest that the development of neurodegenerative diseases is related to adaptive immunity,in which CD4+T cells are involved as adaptive immune cells.Through different pathways,CD4+T cells differentiate into effector and regulatory subsets,which may have different effects on the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease,Parkinson’s disease,multiple sclerosis,and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.Here,we review the role and research progress of CD4+T cells in neurodegenerative diseases.
2021, 43 (4): 634-641
CHEN Li,ZHU Mengliu,KONG Xiangyi,WANG Xiangyu,WANG Zhongzhao,FANG Yi,WANG Jing
Discoidin domain receptor 1(DDR1)is a critical member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family.It may be related to tumor invasion and metastasis,and the abnormal activation of DDR1 can lead to the occurrence and development of malignant tumors,inflammation,and fibrosis.DDR1 are involved in cell adhesion,migration,proliferation,secretion of cytokines,and remodeling of extracellular matrix,thus playing a critical role in various pathophysiological processes of the human body.In this review,we demonstrate the research progress of DDR1 in breast cancer and other malignant tumors,in order to provide a new theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer and other tumors.
2021, 43 (4): 642-648
XU Leyin,LAI Zhichao,FENG Feng,LIU Bao
Arterial spin labeling is a noninvasive,quantitative method for perfusion imaging,which does not need any contrast media.This technique has been used in the renal perfusion analysis.In this article,we briefly introduced this technique and summarized its application in healthy volunteers,acute kidney injury,chronic kidney diseases,renovascular diseases,renal tumors,and renal transplantation.
2021, 43 (4): 649-652
XUE Peng,TANG Chao,JIANG Yu,QIAO Youlin
The advent of the digital era brings new challenges and opportunities for cervical cancer prevention and research.With the development of digital techniques in China,the construction of an information platform for cervical cancer prevention based on the current achievements has become an important trend.This paper expounds the importance,existing problems,and challenges of the data integration of population-based cervical cancer screening and the information platform construction,and puts forwards effective measures to promote its construction.The establishment of an information platform for cervical cancer prevention in the digital era has far-reaching significance for the global elimination of cervical cancer.
2021, 43 (4): 653-658
YAN Yi,XU Tao
Primary aldosteronism is the most common cause of secondary hypertension.This review focuses on the procedures related to surgical treatment and summarizes the available evidence.We analyzed the impact of primary aldosteronism on the body,the advantages of surgical treatment,the choice of patients and surgical methods,perioperative management,and surgical efficacy evaluation.Finally,we put forward the prospect of scientific research in this field,with a view to providing reference for clinical work.
2021, 43 (4): 659-662
XIAO Junyan,CHEN Di,LIU Wenjing,MIN Hanyi
The incidence of endophthalmitis after vitrectomy is extremely low,especially lower in silicone oil-filled eyes.Silicone oil exerts a toxic effect on the cell membranes of microorganisms and leads to the lack of nutrients.It is thus believed to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi.Endophthalmitis induced by mixed bacteria in silicone oil-filled eye has been rarely reported.We reviewed the clinical manifestations,diagnosis,and treatment of a patient with endophthalmitis caused by mixed infection of Morganella morganii and Staphylococcus epidermidis in the silicone oil-filled eye,aiming to improve the understanding and diagnosis of mixed infections.
2021, 43 (4): 663-668
ZHAO Ning,WANG Botao,CHEN Zhiye
Pituitary metastasis,a rare kind of intracranial malignant tumor,is characterized by metastasis from all parts of the body to the pituitary.The common tumors metastatic to pituitary are abundant with blood supply,located in the posterior pituitary lobe and/or the pituitary stalk.The lesion shows infiltrative growth,and mainly demonstrates low signal on T1 weighted imaging and high signal on T2 weighted imaging.It is usually enhanced significantly after iodinated contrast administration.The metastatic tumor with poor blood supply is similar to pituitary macroadenoma on magnetic resonance image,which makes it difficult to be differentiated.We reported two cases of pathologically diagnosed pituitary metastasis with poor blood supply and reviewed related papers,aiming to provide the imaging differentiation points of hypovascular pituitary metastasis.