Hospice and Palliative Care Forum
2021, 43 (1): 3-6
NING Xiaohong,LI Jiayi
Objective To share the outpatient clinic practice of hospice and palliative care at the Department of Geriatrics,Peking Union Medical College Hospital.Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis on the consecutive clinic data of doctor N in Geriatric Outpatient Clinic,Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1,2016 to December 31,2019.The patients aged 85 years and older,as well as those with end stage malignant tumor,non-tumor dysfunction due to chronic diseases or primary diseases without effective treatment were defined as patients with palliative care need.The basic information,symptoms,consultation purposes and treatments of these patients were collected.Results Among the 2502 visits during the study period,1388 patients with palliative care needs were admitted and recorded,with an average age of(69.7±13.5)years(8-105 years),among which 73.3% were patients over 60 years old and 712(51.3%)were males.Among these patients,63.4% visited specifically to seek for palliative care service and 87.2% of the visits were due to distress caused by advanced malignant tumors.Of the 221 patients with non-tumor diseases,frailty and neurodegenerative diseases were the leading life-threating cause.Of the 5483 symptoms recorded,pain(21.2%),anorexia(13.1%),fatigue(11.6%),constipation(6.9%),insomnia(4.6%),and abdominal distension(4.6%)were the six common symptoms.In the 2502 visits,26.2% of the patients had mutiple visits,and 50.3% of the patients with multiple visits had more than three visits;38.6% of patients visited the clinic themselves,and 65.7% of visits were attended by two or more family members(including the patients).The average duration of visit was(19.6±8.5)min(2-85 min),and 13.5%,53.0%,25.6% and 7.9% of the patients completed the consultation within 10,11-20,21-30 and over 30 min,respectively.Conclusion There is strong demand of palliative care in the outpatient clinic of Department of Geriatrics in Peking Union Medical College Hospital and it is feasible to provide palliative care service for patients with serious diseases in geriatric outpatient clinics.
2021, 43 (1): 9-14
ZHANG Yu,LIU Qian,DAI Xiaoyan,ZHAO Xiaoxuan,GE Nan,QU Xuan,NING Xiaohong,ZOU Hai’ou
Objective To explore the effects of palliative care consultation on medical professionals who have requested it in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 medical professionals who had requested palliative care consultation.Results Palliative care consultation had the following positive effects:building a bridge for doctor-patient communication,providing psychological support to reduce the sense of occupational exhaustion for medical professionals,providing technical support for medical professionals to help patients relieve symptoms,helping medical professionals in the multidisciplinary learning of palliative care,adding humanistic care and neglected ethical concerns.Conclusion Palliative care consultation improves the quality of care for dying patients,and the capacity of consultation needs to be enhanced urgently.
2021, 43 (1): 15-20
JIN Shuang, LIU Shuo, WANG Xueping, Buluhan· Halan, CHEN Dongni, YUAN Xinrui, GE Nan, NING Xiaohong
Objective To describe the inpatient care expenditure of the terminally ill patients in the geriatric ward of Peking Union Medical College Hospital and facilitate future research on the economic outcomes of hospice and palliative care.Methods The histories of patients admitted to the Department of Geriatrics of Peking Union Medical College Hospital during 2018 were reviewed by trained doctors.According to the diagnosis and overall health state,terminally ill patients were selected and enrolled in the study.Demographics,health and disease information,prescriptions,and expenditure details were retrieved from the HIS system.Results In 2018,35 patients were terminally ill and eligible for hospice care,including 20 males and 15 females,with the average age of(78±8)years(59-91 years),the average age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index of 10±3,and the median Barthel index of 40(10,70).These patients had malignant tumor(23 cases),heart failure(4 cases),end-stage renal disease(1 case),end-stage liver disease(2 cases),dementia(4 cases)and other severe diseases(3 cases).The patients received standard care within the scope of internal medicine and geriatrics.Finally,8 patients died during hospitalization,and 27 were discharged alive.The 35 patients had the median length of stay of 15(12,23)days,the median inpatient expenditure of CNY 21 500(13 800,37 600),and the median daily expenditure of CNY 1425(970,2503).The percentage of expenditure was(28.5±12.3)% for medication,(33.2±18.0)% for tests and examinations,and 11.5%(6.4%,15.8%)for accommodation and medical services.The medications for symptom control costed CNY(77±58)per day on average,accounting for(5.2±3.5)% of the total expenditure.Conclusions The inpatient expenditure for terminally ill patients in the tertiary grade A hospital was higher than that reported in community hospitals providing hospice care.In terms of expenditure constitution,the money spent on medications and tests/examinations were similar,and the percentage of expenditure on medications for symptom control was low.There is a need for further research on the economic impact of hospice and palliative care among terminally ill patients in China.
2021, 43 (1): 21-24
SHA Rui,NING Xiaohong,CHENG Yuejuan
This paper depicted the whole-course care for an advanced cancer patient from hospital to home.In this case,telemedicine was employed to provide guidance on the symptom control,comfort care,psychotherapy,and bereavement counseling.The patient got the holistic care from the whole family and team.The holistic care finally gave a good death of the patient and aided in the recovery of the family members from grief.
2021, 43 (1): 25-31
LI Ziquan,GENG Mozhao,ZHAO Sen,WU Zhihong,ZHANG Jianguo,WU Nan,WANG Yipeng
Objective To summarize clinical characteristics and investigate possible pathogenic gene of Klippel-Feil syndrome(KFS)by the self-designed multigene panel sequencing,so as to decipher the molecular basis for early diagnosis and targeted therapy.Methods From January 2015 to December 2018,we consecutively recruited 25 patients who were diagnosed with KFS in Peking Union Medical College Hospital.The demographic information,clinical manifestations,physical examination and radiological assessments were analyzed.Multigene panel sequencing was performed after DNA extraction from peripheral blood.The possible pathogenic mutations of KFS were explored on the basis of bioinformatics analysis.Results The KFS cohort consisted of 25 patients,including 15 males and 10 females,with a mean age of(12.9±7.3)years.Limited cervical range of motion was the most common clinical feature(12 cases,48%).Based on the Samartzis classification,the proportion of patients suffered from short neck(P=0.031)and limited cervical range of motion(P=0.026)in type Ⅲ KFS was significantly higher than that in type Ⅱ and type Ⅰ KFS.Panel sequencing detected a total of 11 pathogenic missense mutations in eight patients,including COL6A1,COL6A2,CDAN1,GLI3,FLNB,CHRNG,MYH3,POR,and TNXB.There was no pathogenic mutation found in five reported pathogenic genes(GDF6,MEOX1,GDF3,MYO18B and RIPPLY2)associated with KFS.Conclusions Our study has shown that patients with multiple contiguous cervical fusions are more likely to manifest short neck,limited cervical range of motion,and clinical triad.Therefore,these patients need additional attention and follow-up.Our analysis highlights novel KFS-related genetic variants,such as COL6A and CDAN1,extending the spectrum of known mutations contributing to this syndrome and providing a basis for elucidating the pathogenesis of KFS.
2021, 43 (1): 32-36
WANG Dongliang,SONG Haidong,HAO Qingpei,FANG Jixia,LIU Bo,ZHOU Jingru,JIAO Feng,FAN Cungang,LIU Ru’en
Objective To evaluate the effect of methylprednisolone sodium succinate combined with tropisetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting(PONV)under microvascular decompression of hemifacial spasm.Methods From January to June 2019,485 patients undergoing microvascular decompression for facial spasm at Department of Neurosurgery,Peking University People’s Hospital were randomly assigned into two groups with random number table method.For group A(n=242),2 ml saline was administrated by intravenous drip before induction and 5 mg tropisetron after operation.For group B(n=243),40 mg methylprednisolone sodium succinate was administrated by intravenous drip before induction and 5 mg tropisetron after operation.The anesthesia time,operation time,and incidence of PONV in 0-24 h and 24-48 h were recorded for the comparison of the remedial treatment rate of nausea and vomiting between the two groups.Results There was no significant difference in age,gender,smoking history,body mass index value,American Society of Anesthesiologists score,medical history,surgical side,PONV history,operation time or anesthesia time between the two groups(all P > 0.05).The incidence of PONV in group A was 35.5% and 18.2% during 0-24 h and 24-48 h,respectively,which was significantly higher than that(18.5%,χ 2=7.331,P=0.007;8.2%,χ 2=4.364,P=0.037)in group B.The application rate of antiemetic drugs in group A was 15.2% and 8.7% during 0-24 h and 24-48 h,respectively,which was significantly higher than that(5.3%,χ 2=5.327,P=0.021;2.0%,χ 2=4.432,P=0.035)in group B.Conclusion The combination of methylprednisolone sodium succinate and tropisetron can effectively prevent PONV under microvascular decompression of hemifacial spasm,with the performance superior to single drug treatment.
2021, 43 (1): 37-41
ZHANG Xu,LI Fangda,WANG Wei,JI Lei,REN Jinrui,CHEN Yuexin,YE Wei,LIU Bao,LIU Changwei,ZHENG Yuehong
Objective To explore the outcomes in patients who receive the endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair(EVAR)and have concomitant intra-abdominal malignancy.Methods Between January 2014 and December 2019,all the patients who underwent surgery for malignancy and/or EVAR were retrospectively reviewed.Results Twenty-eight abdominal aortic aneurysm(AAA)patients with concomitant intra-abdominal malignancy were included.The patients were treated by two-stage operation and the priority was given for EVAR in 21 patients.There was no perioperative death or major complications.In the follow-up,one patient developed graft thrombosis and one had type Ⅱ endoleak.There was no AAA-associated death.Conclusions It is preferred that EVAR should come first followed by operation for malignancy.Details of treatment strategy still need further investigation.
2021, 43 (1): 42-46
ZHENG Zengguang,SUN Wenyong
Objective To investigate the clinicopathological features,immunohistochemical characteristics,diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of intrathyroid thymic carcinoma.Methods Clinical data of 7 patients with intrathyroid thymic carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed.Histological examination and immunohistochemical staining were performed on the surgically resected tumors.The infection of Epstein-Barr virus(EBV)was detected by EBER in situ hybridization.Results The 7 patients included 5 males and 2 females.The age ranged from 40 to 71 years,with a median of 54 years.The tumors were located in the thyroid gland,with the maximum diameter ranging from 2.2 cm to 6.0 cm and the average maximum diameter of(4.0±1.2)cm.All the patients underwent thyroid gland resection and local lymph node dissection.After operation,all the cases were treated with radiotherapy and five of them additionally received chemotherapy.Six patients were followed up for 10-163 months,all of whom were still alive,including 2 patients with recurrence in situ,1 patient with homolateral cervical lymph node metastasis and the rest with no recurrence or metastasis.CK-pan,P63,CD5 and CD117 were expressed in all the cases,while TTF-1,TG,CT and PAX8 were negative.One case of them expressed SYN and CgA.Ki-67 proliferation index ranged from 10% to 90%.EBER in situ hybridization showed negative results in all 7 cases.Conclusions Intrathyroid thymic carcinoma is a relatively low-grade malignant tumor.The combination of immunohistochemical CD5,CD117 and monoclonal PAX8 is helpful in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of intrathyroid thymic carcinoma.EBV may not be involved in the development of intrathyroid thymic carcinoma.Thyroid gland resection plus central lymph node dissection is an important treatment measure for intrathyroid thymic carcinoma.For patients with regional lymph node metastasis and obvious peripheral tissue invasion,postoperative radiotherapy with/without chemotherapy can effectively delay the disease progression.
2021, 43 (1): 47-52
LI Juan,CHEN Xinyue,XU Kai,HE Ming,SUN Ting,ZHU Liang,XUE Huadan,JIN Zhengyu
Objective To determine the appropriate averaging strategy for pancreatic perfusion datasets to create images for routine reading of insulinoma.Methods Thirty-nine patients undergoing pancreatic perfusion CT in Peking Union Medical College Hospital and diagnosed as insulinoma by pathology were enrolled in this retrospective study.The time-density curve of abdominal aorta calculated by software dynamic angio was used to decide the timings for averaging.Five strategies,by averaging 3,5,7,9 and 11 dynamic scans in perfusion,all including peak enhancement of the abdominal aorta,were investigated in the study.The image noise,pancreas signal-to-noise ratio(SNR),lesion contrast and lesion contrast-to-noise ratio(CNR)were recorded and compared.Besides,overall image quality and insulinoma depiction were also compared.ANOVA and Friedman’s test were performed.Results The image noise decreased and the SNR of pancreas increased with the increase in averaging time points(all P<0.001).The lesion contrast(69.81±41.35)averaged from 5 scans showed no significant difference compared with that(72.77±45.25)averaged from 3 scans(P=0.103),both of which were higher than that in other groups(all P≤0.001).The lesion CNRs of the last four groups showed no significant difference(all P>0.99)and were higher than that of the first group(all P<0.05).There was no significant difference in overall image quality among the 5 groups(P=0.977).Conclusions Image averaged from 5 scans showed moderate image noise,pancreas SNR and relatively high lesion contrast and lesion CNR.Therefore,it is advised to be used in image averaging to detect insulinoma.
2021, 43 (1): 53-56
MA Tuo,CAO Lixiu,LI Huiju,REN Hongliang,CHEN Dapeng,GAO Yuan,LI Zhidong,ZHAO Xinbin,DONG Siqi
Objective To compare the differences of energy spectrum CT between small cell lung cancer(SCLC)with mediastinal lymph node metastasis and mediastinal sarcoidosis.Methods Twenty-five SCLC patients with mediastinal lymph node metastasis(SCLC group)and 26 patients with mediastinal sarcoidosis(sarcoidosis group)confirmed by bronchoscopy and biopsy in Tangshan People’s Hospital from January 2018 to June 2019 were selected as the research objects.The CT value,iodine concentration,water concentration and energy spectrum curve slope under different single energy levels were compared between SCLC group and sarcoidosis group.Results The single-energy CT values of 40-80 keV segments in the arterial phase of the SCLC group were significantly higher than those in the sarcoidosis group(all P <0.05).The single-energy CT values of 90-140 keV segments were not significantly different from those in the sarcoidosis group(all P >0.05).The single-energy CT values of 40-90 keV segments in venous phase of the SCLC group were significantly higher than those of the sarcoidosis group(all P <0.05),and the single-energy CT values of 100-140 keV segments were not significantly different from those of the sarcoidosis group(all P >0.05).The concentrations of iodine in the arterial phase and venous phase of the SCLC group were(11.56±4.06)μg/cm 3 and(13.39±0.87)μg/cm 3,respectively,which were significantly higher than those [(4.43±3.85)μg/cm 3,t=11.564,P=0.026;(7.23±2.71)μg/cm 3,t=13.653,P=0.021] in the sarcoidosis group.The concentrations of water in the arterial and venous phases of the SCLC group were(1040.67±5.62)mg/cm 3 and(1035.23±8.57)mg/cm 3,respectively,which showed no statistically significant difference compared with those [(1028.87±6.94)mg/cm 3,t=3.155,P=1.861;(1021.53±4.68)mg/cm 3,t=3.265,P=1.687] in the sarcoidosis group.The slopes of energy spectrum curve at 40-70 keV,70-100 keV and 100-140 keV in venous phase of the SCLC group were significantly higher than those of the sarcoidosis group(all P <0.05),whereas they showed no significant difference between the two groups in arterial phase(all P >0.05).Conclusion The differences between SCLC with mediastinal lymph node metastasis and mediastinal sarcoidosis can be shown on the single-energy CT values of 40-80 keV in arterial phase and 40-90 keV in venous phase,iodine concentrations in arterial phase and venous phase,and the slope of energy spectrum curve in venous phase.
2021, 43 (1): 57-62
MENG Qinglin,XU Huan,ZONG Linxiong,LIU Mengqi,CHEN Zhiye
Objective To investigate the intra-and inter-observer reproducibility of iodine concentrations of abdominal parenchymal organs based on spectral CT.Methods The water-free iodine images of the venous phase were retrospectively obtained from 50 patients with abdominal dynamic spectral CT scans.The iodine concentrations were measured in the left,right and caudate lobes of liver,spleen,pancreas and bilateral kidneys.Intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC)and Bland-Altman plot were employed to analyze the intra-and inter-observer reproducibility.Results The intra-observer ICCs of the left,right and caudate lobes of liver,spleen,pancreas,and left and right kidneys were 0.938(0.894,0.965),0.932(0.884,0.961),0.939(0.895,0.965),0.947(0.909,0.970),0.912(0.851,0.949),0.946(0.906,0.969)and 0.907(0.842,0.946),which indicated good intra-observer reproducibility.The inter-observer ICCs of the left,right and caudate lobes of liver,spleen,pancreas,and left and right kidneys were 0.947(0.909,0.970),0.927(0.875,0.958),0.943(0.902,0.968),0.956(0.924,0.975),0.934(0.887,0.962),0.927(0.875,0.958)and 0.892(0.818,0.937),which indicated good inter-observer reproducibility.Bland-Altman plots presented that more than 95% points of the intra-observer differences located within 95% CI of limits of agreement for the caudate lobe of liver,spleen,pancreas and bilateral kidneys,which was same as inter-observer differences of the caudate lobe of liver,spleen and right kidney.Conclusion The iodine concentration measurement based on the spectral CT presented good intra-and inter-observer reproducibility for the caudate lobe of liver and spleen.
2021, 43 (1): 63-68
LIU Jian,WU Jingping,WANG Ning,LI Guanghan,WANG Xiuhong,WANG Ying,ZHENG Min,ZHANG Bo
Objective To explore the value of elastography strain ratio(SR)combined with breast ultrasound imaging reporting and data system(BI-RADS-US)in the differential diagnosis of breast nodules.Methods A total of 471 breast nodules(from 471 patients)were reclassified by SR combined with BI-RADS-US.With the pathology results as gold standard,the area under the receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve(AUC)was employed to evaluate the diagnostic performance,and the sensitivity,specificity,and accuracy were compared between the combined method and BI-RADS-US.Results Among the 471 breast nodules,180 nodules were benign and 291 were malignant.The AUC of the combined method was statistically significantly higher than that of BI-RADS-US(0.798 vs. 0.730;Z= 2.583, P= 0.010).SR,BI-RADS-US,and the combined method for diagnosing breast nodules had the sensitivity of 86.6%,99.0%,and 96.6%,the specificity of 67.2%,47.2%,and 63.3%,and the accuracy of 79.2%,79.2%,and 83.9%,respectively.The combined method increased the specificity from 47.2%(BI-RADS-US)to 63.3%(χ 2=14.25,P < 0.001),and downgraded 57.5%(42/73)benign nodules of BI-RADS category 4A to category 3.Conclusions SR combined with BI-RADS-US can improve the diagnostic performance for breast nodules.Especially,it can improve the specificity,avoiding unnecessary biopsy of breast nodules.
2021, 43 (1): 69-76
DAI Xuemei,ZHANG Xi,ZHOU Jing,DUAN Xiaoxia,LIAO Yuting,YAN Liuqing,GAO Yuyang,HOU Furang,YUAN Ping
Objective To investigate the current status of nutritional knowledge and skills of fast-food takeout practitioners in Chengdu City,so as to provide evidence for nutritional literacy education among takeout practitioners.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 832 employees of fast-food takeout restaurants in Chengdu from April to September in 2019 through a multi-stage random sampling strategy.Results The awareness rate of nutritional knowledge of fast-food takeout practitioners in Chengdu was 77.28%,and the correct rates of answers to daily oil intake for adults,daily drinking water for adults and daily salt intake for adults in the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents were respectively 17.43%,22.60% and 25.36%.In addition,the proportion of practitioners with the ability to estimate the recommended intake of food for a meal,the ability to estimate condiments intake and the ability to interpret nutrition labels were 8.77%,8.77% and 15.02%,respectively.The awareness rate of nutritional knowledge was the lowest(71.47%)in the practitioners aged≤25 and the highest(84.53%)in those aged 26-39,and the difference was statistically significant(χ 2 =14.419,P=0.001).High awareness rate of nutritional knowledge was found in the practitioners of Han ethnic group(78.45%)compared with those of ethnic minorities(57.14%)(χ 2=10.346,P=0.001).Besides,the practitioners with a high degree of education showed high awareness rate of nutritional knowledge( =20.458,P <0.001),and those with long working years in the catering industry had high awareness rate( =8.503,P=0.004).There was no significant difference in the correct rate of food recommended intake per meal and condiments estimation among those with different genders,ages,ethnic groups,degrees of education,working years,working positions and professional certificate holdings(all P>0.05).The correct rate of interpretation of nutrition labels in males(18.69%)was significantly higher than that(9.86%)in females(χ 2=12.335,P <0.001).This correct rate was the lowest(9.91%)in those aged≥40 and the highest(17.63%)among those aged 26-39,and the difference was statistically significant(χ 2=6.228,P=0.044).In addition,the practitioners with a high degree of education showed high correct rate of interpretation of nutrition labels( =36.514,P<0.001),and the correct rate of chefs(17.86%)was higher than that(12.82%)of food matching staff(χ 2=4.068,P=0.044).Conclusions The fast-food takeout practitioners in Chengdu generally have good nutritional knowledge while have some knowledge gaps.At the same time,the nutrition-related skills of takeout practitioners are not good.We should focus on strengthening the training of takeout restaurant employees for the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents and nutrition labeling-related knowledge,carry out targeted nutritional knowledge training,and comprehensively strengthen the training of nutrition-related skills.
2021, 43 (1): 77-81
DUAN Xiaoxia,LIAO Yuting,HUANG Jincheng,ZHANG Xi,DAI Xuemei,ZHOU Jing,YUAN Ping
Objective To investigate the nutritional literacy levels of the takeaway platform practitioners in Chengdu,the takeaway food nutrients,and the correlation between them.Methods We employed a multi-stage random sampling method to investigate the nutritional literacy levels of 100 takeaway platform restaurants in the main urban area of Chengdu and examined the nutritional components of hot set meals in each restaurant.A questionnaire survey was conducted on the nutritional literacy levels of chefs and food matching staff.The correlations of nutrient energy supply rationality with nutritional literacy level and set meal price were then analyzed.Results The total pass rate of nutrition knowledge of chefs/food matching staff was 61.0%.Only 2.0% of the set meals had reasonable total energy supply.The set meals with reasonable energy supply of available carbohydrate,protein,and fat accounted for 3.0%,62.0%,and 21.0%,and those with over energy supply accounted for 97.0%,26.0%,and 73.0%,respectively.The rest set meals provided insufficient energy.There was a positive correlation between the nutritional literacy level and the rationality of protein energy supply(r=0.414,P=0.003).Conclusions The nutritional literacy levels of chefs/food matching staff of takeaway food restaurants in Chengdu are moderate.The hot set meals on the takeaway platform have the problem of excess energy supply.The nutrition knowledge of chefs/food matching staff cannot effectively satisfy rational nutrition matching.The nutritional literacy levels of chefs/food matching staff showed no significant correlation with the rationality of nutrient energy supply.
2021, 43 (1): 82-91
WANG Mengmeng,CHEN Zhaojing,WANG Ying,XU Xianrong,LI Hongjuan,YANG Jun
Objective To evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipid profiles and neonatal prognosis in gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM)patients.Methods The electronic databases including PubMed,Web of Science,Embase,CNKI,and Wanfang Data were searched from inception to February 1,2020.All randomized controlled trials that compared vitamin D supplementation with placebo or without supplementation for GDM women were included.Paper selection,data extraction,meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted independently by two authors.Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.The data were analyzed in RevMan 5.3 software and Stata 12.0.Results Totally 17 randomized controlled trials involving 1432 patients(704 in the intervention group and 728 in the control group)were included in the meta-analysis.The results showed that vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced serum total cholesterol [MD=-6.11,95% CI=(-7.17,-5.04)],low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [MD=-10.80,95% CI=(-14.72,-6.89)],and triglyceride [MD=-8.11,95% CI=(-10.09,-6.13)],while significantly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level [MD=45.45,95% CI=(41.98,48.92)] and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [MD=2.77,95% CI=(1.59,3.96)].In addition,vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced the incidence rate of hyperbilirubinemia [RR=0.49,95% CI=(0.35,0.68)],premature birth [RR=0.44,95% CI=(0.27,0.72)],and neonatal hospitalization [RR=0.44,95% CI=(0.29,0.67)].Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation may regulate the serum lipid profiles in patients with GDM and reduce the incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes.More high-quality RCTs are needed to confirm the findings in our study.
2021, 43 (1): 92-100
PU Dongqing,LIU Zheng,ZHOU Chao,LIANG Jiawei,HAO Qingzhi
Objective To analyze the research status,hotspots,and frontiers of atherosclerosis genomics from 2010 to 2019.Methods CiteSpace software was used to conduct data statistics and visual analysis on countries,institutions,authors,journals,co-cited papers,and keywords of the related papers published in the Web of Science from 2010 to 2019.Results A total of 1021 papers in English were included,and the annual number of publications generally showed an upward trend.The knowledge base in the research of atherosclerosis mostly focused on the genetic risk sites and biomarkers for coronary artery diseases such as coronary heart disease,myocardial infarction,and dyslipidemia.The related journals mainly involved the fields of molecular biology,biology,genetics,immunology,medicine,pharmacy,and clinical medicine.The latest research in atherosclerosis concentrated on genome-wide association study,DNA methylation,microRNA,messenger RNA and so on.The research frontiers involved long noncoding RNA,DNA methylation,and immune metabolism.Conclusion The studies in atherosclerotic genomics have gradually increased.
Medical Arifcia Intelligence
2021, 43 (1): 101-108
LU Chunji,GUO Minjiang,ZHANG Fangyuan,ZHENG Jianli,LI Yazi
The application of artificial intelligence in the field of primary health care can effectively improve diagnosis and treatment,avoid over-examination and over-medication,and make up for the shortage of high-quality medical resources in primary medical and health institutions.Focusing on the application of artificial intelligence in the field of primary health care,this paper analyzes the existing application modes and typical cases,studies its main stakeholders,interest demands and problems,and provides corresponding suggestions.
2021, 43 (1): 109-115
CHEN Miao,ZHUANG Junling
The self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells(HSCs)are highly regulated by epigenetic modification,in which histone acetylation can activate or silence gene transcription.Histone deacetylase inhibitors(HDACIs)can inhibit the activity of histone deacetylase in HSCs to increase histone acetylation.A variety of HDACIs,such as trichostatin A and valproic acid,are used to expand HSCs in vitro,especially cord blood HSCs,combined with cytokines in serum-free culture to obtain more long-term repopulating cells.HDACIs promote the transcription of pluripotent genes related to stem cell self-renewal and inhibit the expression of genes related to differentiation,so as to promote the expansion and inhibit differentiation of HSCs.The expansion of cord blood HSCs by small molecular HDACIs in vitro is expected to improve the quantity of cord blood HSCs.The further research will focus on high-throughput screening for the most powerful HDACIs and the highly selective HDACIs,exploring the combination of epigenetic modifiers of different pathways.
2021, 43 (1): 116-123
CHEN Lin,RU Qin,ZHOU Mei,WU Yuxiang
Drug addiction is a major worldwide medical and social problem.Cocaine,nicotine,methamphetamine,heroin and other psychoactive substances,with small molecular weight,can easily cross the blood-brain barrier and eventually lead to addiction and other serious neuropsychological damage.There is no effective cure for addiction currently.The drug-antibody complex formed on the basis of active or passive immunotherapy could not cross the blood-brain barrier,which reduces the concentration of the free active drug and prevents its distribution in the brain,thereby weakening the drug addiction-related reward effects.It provides a promising way for the treatment of drug addiction.This article reviews the progress of immunotherapy against psychoactive substances such as cocaine,nicotine,methamphetamine and heroin in the past 50 years from the aspects of active immunity,passive immunity,drug metabolism-related enzymes,adjuvants and so on.The goal is to provide some ideas for the development of agents for the treatment of psychoactive substance addiction.
2021, 43 (1): 124-129
ZHANG Qian,LIANG Xiaochun
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy(DPN),a chronic diabetic microvascular complication with a high incidence among diabetic patients,increases the risk of diabetic foot and amputation.Many methods are available for screening and evaluating DPN,including traditional 10 g monofilament,tuning fork and vibration perception,and tendon reflex tests,which should be combined with some nerve function score systems to improve the detection rate and accuracy for DPN.In recent years,a number of noninvasive new techniques have been developed for the evaluation of nerve injury,such as corneal confocal microscopy,quantitative sensory testing,current perception threshold test,sympathetic sudomotor function evaluation,and quantitative detection of skin advanced glycation end products.This paper reviews these noninvasive methods for screening and evaluating DPN to help clinicians detect and focus on DPN early.
2021, 43 (1): 130-135
ZHANG Ruxin,ZHANG Xuan
Adipokines,the bioactive polypeptides secreted by adipose tissue,are related to the occurrence and development of obesity,metabolic syndrome,renal insufficiency,cardiovascular disease,diabetes mellitus and other diseases.They may be the disease intervention targets and a breakthrough in the study of disease pathogenesis.In this paper,we summarize the latest research progress of the adipokines omentin,chemerin and nesfatin.
2021, 43 (1): 136-143
DUAN Hanyu,LIU Zijia,XU Guangyan,Laba ciren
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery(VATS)has become the main method of lobectomy.Multimodal analgesia is one of the core contents of enhanced recovery after surgery(ERAS)management in VATS lobectomy,which aims to control perioperative pain,reduce stress response,and achieve rapid recovery after surgery.In recent years,multimodal analgesia has developed rapidly,emphasizing the comprehensive implementation of a variety of analgesic methods and the synergistic application of analgesics with different mechanisms.This article reviews the new progress in the implementation of multimodal analgesia in VATS lobectomy and addresses the current problems and challenges,aiming to help develop more effective and practical analgesic strategies of ERAS.
2021, 43 (1): 144-148
JI Lei,ZHANG Xu,WANG Wei,LI Fangda,LIU Zhili,ZHENG Yuehong
Peripheral artery aneurysms,with low incidence and complex anatomic structure,often involve important branches.This paper introduces a new surgical technique—sleeve shaping on the basis of two cases.The basic data,including characteristics,imaging,operation and follow-up data of the cases,were collected.The data were then combined with the previous literature for explaining in detail that this technique can be used as a supplementary method of reconstruction following resection or endovascular repair.
2021, 43 (1): 149-152
HUANG Juan,MENG Huanyu,WANG Lijing,HE Bixiu,XU Hongwei,ZHOU Lin
Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema(RS3PE),the inflammatory arthritis attacking mainly elderly males,is characterized by symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema of the dorsum of hands and feet and the absence of rheumatoid factor.RS3PE commonly accompanies malignant tumor,infections and other diseases.Here we report a case of RS3PE associated with lung malignancy and review other six cases to summarize the clinical features,treatment and prognosis.