2019, 41 (4): 443-451
LU Shihong,GE Meili,YOU Yahong,HUO Jiali,LIANG Haoyue,YU Wenying,YANG Donglin,FENG Sizhou,HAN Zhongchao
Objective To analyze the differences in biological functions between bone marrow(BM)-derived CD106 +mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)and the CD106 - subgroup. Methods The MSCs from normal BM were isolated and expanded.The subgroups of CD106 + and CD106 -MSCs were sorted.The cell proliferation and adhesion functions,chemotactic activities,adipogenic and osteogenic potentials,senescence,and senescence protein 21(p21)were detected.The capacity of translocation into nucleus of nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB)when stimulated by tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α)was measured. Results The proliferative ability was higher in CD106 +MSCs than that in CD106 -MSCs.In 48 hours,the value of optical density(OD)was significantly higher in CD106 +MSCs than that in CD106 - subgroup(1.004±0.028 vs. 0.659±0.023,t=3.946,P=0.0225).In 72 hours,this phenomenon was even more pronounced(2.574±0.089 vs. 1.590±0.074,t=11.240,P=0.0000).The adhesive capacity of CD106 +MSCs was significantly stronger than that of CD106 - subgroup(0.648±0.018 vs. 0.418±0.023,t=7.869,P=0.0002).Besides,the metastasis ability of CD106 +MSCs were significantly stronger than that of CD106 - subgroup(114.500±4.481 vs.71.000±4.435,t=6.900,P=0.0005).The CD106 +MSCs had signifcnatly lower proportions of senescent cells.The expression of aging protein p21 in CD106 +MSCs was significantly lower than that in CD106 -MSCs [(17.560±1.421)% vs.(45.800±2.569)%,t=9.618,P=0.0000].Furthermore,there were no visible pigmenting cells after β-galactosidase staining in CD106 +MSCs subgroup.However,in CD106 -MSCs,some colored green cells were detected.The rate of NF-κB translocation into nucleus after stimulated by TNF-α was significantly higher in CD106 +MSCs than CD106 - MSCs [(37.780±3.268)% vs.(7.30±1.25)%,t=8.713,P=0.0001]. Conclusion Bone marrow-derived CD106 +MSCs possess more powerful biological functions than CD106 -MSCs.
2019, 41 (4): 452-456
LIU Huiting,LI Ji,DONG Xuyang,Lü Hong,YANG Hong,LI Yue,SHU Huijun,SUN Xiyu,WU Bin,QIAN Jiaming
Objective To analyze the clinical features and prognosis of ulcerative colitis(UC)complicated with acute massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding(LGIB). Methods Eleven patients hospitalized in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2006 to December 2017 for treatment of UC,suffering from acute massive LGIB,were enrolled and descriptively analyzed. Results The proportion of UC patients with acute massive LGIB was 0.7% among all 1486 UC patients hospitalized during the study period.The disease was moderately or severely active in these 11 patients,among whom 9 patients(81.8%)had chronic relapsing pancolitis.Cytomegalovirus infection was present in 5 patients,among whom 4 patients received antiviral treatments.All the 11 patients received treatments including food and water fasting,rehydration,blood transfusion,and use of somatostatin.Four patients received emergency surgical treatment after the first episode of massive bleeding,and 3 of them suffered from re-bleeding after the surgery.Among the remaining seven patients,two underwent emergency total colectomy+subtotal rectectomy+ileostomy and three received elective total resection of colon and rectum or total colectomy+subtotal rectectomy+ileostomy.Thus,9 patients underwent emergency surgery,1 patient did not receive surgey during follow-up,and 1 patient was lost to follow-up. Conclusions Acute massive LGIB is a manifestation of active UC and can be associated with poor prognosis.Optimized perioperative management is important for improving the outcomes of such patients.
2019, 41 (4): 457-463
XIE Xi,TANG Sheng,WANG Jia,CHEN Jinwei,TIAN Jing,MAO Ni,LIU Yiming,LI Fen
Objective To systematically evaluate the risks of cardiocerebral vascular events in patients with primary biliary cholangitis(PBC). Methods We carried out a Meta analysis by RevMan 5.3 software to investigate literatureon the risk of cardiocerebral vascular events in patients with PBC and controls. Results Compared with non-PBC controls,PBC patients had significantly higher risk of coronary events(RR=1.56,P=0.0002);however,the risk of cerebrovascular events showed no significant difference between these two groups(RR=1.01,P=0.94).Subgroup analysis demonstrated a significantly lower risk of transient ischemic attack or carotid stenosis in PBC patients(RR=0.63,P=0.03);however,there was no significant difference in the risk of stroke(RR=1.11,P=0.40). Conclusion Patients with PBC have an increased risk of coronary events but may have a lower risk of transient ischemic attack or carotid stenosis.
2019, 41 (4): 464-471
MA Mingxing,CHANG Qian,YU Cuntao,SHU Chang,QIAN Xiangyang,SUN Xiaogang,WEI Bo,HU Xiaopeng
Objective To evaluate the early and midterm results of surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm(TAAA)in patients with Marfan syndrome(MFS). Methods The clinical data of patients with MFS undergoing TAAA repair in Fuwai Hospital between January 2009 and December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed.These patients were divided into two groups:MFS group(n=58)and non-MFS group(n=98).The baseline data,early postoperative results,and midterm follow-up outcomes were compared between these two groups. Results MFS patients were significantly younger(32 years old vs. 45 years old,t=9.603,P=0.000)and more frequently had a history of aortic aneurysm or dissection(19% vs. 0,χ 2=19.996,P=0.000)than non-MFS patients.However,the proportions of males and smokers were significantly lower when compared with non-MFS patients(55.2% vs. 80.6%,χ 2=11.489,P=0.001;13.8% vs. 46.9%,χ 2=17.686,P=0.001).There was no significant difference in proportion of emergency operation,prophylactic cerebrospinal fluid drainage,operation time,intra-operative circulation management,and intra-operative blood transfusion(all P>0.05).The 30-day mortality rate was significantly lower in MFS group than in non-MFS group(0 vs. 9.2%, =5.616,P=0.018).There was no significant difference in spinal cord injury,renal failure,and respiratory complications between the two groups(all P>0.05).The mean follow-up period was 43 months(3-114 months)in MFS group and 50 months(0-111 months)in non-MFS group.The 5-year survivals rate did not significantly differ between these two groups [(89.2±4.6)% for MFS group and(83.8±4.1)% for non-MFS group, =2.719,P=0.099].Actuarial rates of free from re-interventions at 5 years in MFS group and non-MFS group were(72.7±8.4)% and(95.2±2.3)%,respectively.The MFS group had significantly higher re-intervention rate than the non-MFS group( =5.034,P=0.025). Conclusions For patients with MFS,TAAA repair provides lower 30-day mortality and comparative middle-term survival.However,the re-intervention rate is higher among MFS patients,highlighting the importance of close follow-up.
2019, 41 (4): 472-478
WANG Shaohua,WANG Zhiwei,DENG Lingbo,LIU Yongbin,ZHANG Gang
Objective To explore the correlation between hematoma expansion within 24 hours of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage and signs on nonenhanced computed tomography(NECT). Methods The clinical data and CT images of 185 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage were retrospectively analyzed.The differences in CT parameters were compared between the expansion group and the unexpanded group.Binary logistic regression analysis was performed on the indicators with statistical significance between the two groups to identify the potential correlation between CT parameters and hematoma expansion.The roles of blend sign,lobulation sign,and black hole sign in predicting early hematoma expansion were assessed. Results The CT quantitative data including initial volume,maximum diameter,minimum diameter,maximum CT value,mean CT value,difference between maximum diameter and minimum diameter showed no significant difference between these two group(all P>0.05).CT qualitative data including blend sign,lobulation sign,and black hole sign were significantly different(P<0.05)but the differences became not significant after the hematoma broke into the ventricles.Binary logistic regression analysis showed that blend sign,lobulation sign,and black hole sign were independent risk factors for early hematoma expansion,with sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value,and negative predictive value of the combined signs and the early hematoma expansion calculated by the four-fold table method being 78.4%,59.0%,42.1%,and 87.8%,respectively,and the Youden index was 0.374.Its Youden index was closer to 1 than the blend sign,the black hole sign,and the lobulation sign. Conclusion The blend sign,lobulation sign,and black hole sign in NECT can be used to predict hematoma expansion within 24 hours after hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage.
2019, 41 (4): 479-484
ZONG Shuangle,SU Lixin,LIANG Weidong,LI Lidong,HU Qifeng,GONG Zhongping,MENG Lihuan,ZHANG Shuli
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of minimally invasive bridging for the lateral malleolar fractures in the open comminuted ankle fractures with dislocation. Methods The clinical data of 24 patients [19 males and 5 females aged 40 to 65 years,mean(47.5±8.6)years] with open comminuted ankle fractures with dislocation who were treated in the Second Hospital of Tangshan from September 2015 to June 2017 were retrospectively analyzed.All patients were treated with minimally invasive bridging for the lateral malleolar fractures.The ankle function after treatment was assessed with the Olerud Molander Ankle(OMA)score. Results All the 24 patients were followed up from 12-26 months [mean:(14.5±2.6)months].Good fracture union was achieved in all patients after 2 - 5 months(mean:3 months).No deep infection,skin necrosis,or bone nonunion occurred after 12 months of follow-up.Only one patient suffered from partial skin necrosis at lateral malleolus,which was cured after changing wound dressings.The OMA score was 93.5(range:85-100)after 12 months(excellent in 19 cases and good in 5 cases). Conclusions Minimally invasive bridging for the lateral malleolar fractures is effective in treating the open comminuted ankle fractures with dislocation.It can obtain good reduction and fixation,reduce complications,and achieve high union rate.
2019, 41 (4): 485-491
HUANG Zoufang,WANG Tingyu,FU Mingwei,LIU Wei,HAO Mu,QIU Lugui,ZOU Dehui
Objective To analyze the treatment and prognosis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia(T-ALL)in adults. Method The clinicobiogical and survival data of 68 adult patients with newly diagnosis T-ALL were retrospectively analzyed. Results The median age of these 68 patients was 23 years(14-60 years).T-ALL was more common in men(81%).After the first cycle of treatment,complete remission was achieved in 50 patients(73%).The highest complete remission(CR) rate was in patients with cortex T-ALL(100%),followed by other T-ALL(73%)and early T-cell precursor lymphoblastic leukemia(54%),(χ 2=5.712,P=0.058).The CR rate for adults aged >35 years was significantly lower than that of patients aged ≤ 35 years(40% vs. 79%,χ 2=6.364,P=0.012).The overall CR rate after the second treatment course was 93%.For patients treated with chemotherapy,autograft hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(auto-SCT),and allogeneic SCT,the median relapse free survival was 10 months,24 months,and not reached,respectively(P=0.002).The 5-year overall survival rate was 25% for all patients;for patients treated with chemotherapy,auto-SCT and allogeneic SCT,the median overall survival was 24 months,34 months,and 30 months,respectively(P=0.007),and the 5-year overall survival rate was 9%,33%,and 38%(P=0.037).Multivariate analysis showed leukocyte count ≥100×10 9/L was a risk factor for decreased relapse free survival(risk ratio 2.540,95%CI=1.058-6.099,P=0.037). Conclusion Adult T-ALL patients have poor prognosis,which may be improved by SCT.
2019, 41 (4): 492-500
CHEN Xing,PENG Panxin,HE Yuhui,DING Zhenshan,WANG Jianfeng,TAN Yiwei,ZHOU Xiaofeng
Objective To compare the accuracy of SHA.LIN,S.T.O.N.E.nephrolithometry scoring system,and Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society(CROES)nephrolithometry nomogram in predicting percutaneous nephrolithotomy(PCNL)outcomes including stone free rate(SFR)and perioperative status. Methods The clinical data of 90 patients with nephrolithiasis undergoing PCNL in department of urology,China-Japan Friendship Hospital from January 2015 to March 2018 were retrospectively analyzed.The general data,stone characteristics,operation approaches,and perioperative variables were recorded.SHA.LIN,S.T.O.N.E.score,and CROES nomogram were assigned according to the computed tomography(CT)findings before surgery.Stone free status was evaluated by kidney-ureter-bladder one month after PCNL.The relationships of SHA.LIN score,S.T.O.N.E.score,and CROES score with SFR,postoperative complications,operation time(OT),length of hospital stay(LOS),estimated blood loss(EBL),and decrease of hemoglobin was evaluated.Receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curves were used to analyze the predictive accuracy. Results The SFR was 72.2%(65/90)and postoperative complications occurred in 33 cases(36.7%).The mean OT was(103.1±39.6)min,the mean EBL was(46.1±53.0)ml,the mean LOS was(15.3±5.2)d,the mean postoperative LOS was(8.5±3.4)d,and the mean decrease of hemoglobin was(16.1±10.2)g/L.Stone-free patients had significantly lower SHA.LIN score(8.23 vs. 10.36,P=0.000)and S.T.O.N.E.score(7.05 vs.8.16,P=0.000)and significantly higher CROES score(188.50 vs. 143.89,P=0.000)compared to patients with residual fragments.All these scores were not significantly associated with complications(P>0.05).On the other hand,all these scores were significantly correlated with OT,EBL,and decrease of hemoglobin(SHA.LIN:POT=0.006,PEBL=0.028,Pdecrease of hemoglobin=0.014;S.T.O.N.E.:POT=0.012,PEBL=0.047,Pdecrease of hemoglobin=0.011;and CROES:POT=0.040,PEBL=0.045,Pdecrease of hemoglobin=0.013).SHA.LIN(P=0.001)and S.T.O.N.E.(P=0.005)scores were associated with LOS.Logistic regression analysis revealed that SHA.LIN(OR=2.491),S.T.O.N.E.(OR=3.030),and CROES(OR=0.973)scores were significantly associated with stone-free status.ROC curves in predicting SFR showed that there was significant difference in the areas under the curves(AUC)for the SHA.LIN vs. S.T.O.N.E.score [0.808(95% CI=0.711-0.905)vs. 0.748(95% CI=0.632-0.864),P=0.047].AUC for the CROES score [0.770(95% CI=0.664-0.877)] showed no significantly different for the SHA.LIN score or the S.T.O.N.E.score(P>0.05). Conclusions All these three scoring systems have good predictive accuracy for SFR.SHA.LIN is more precise than S.T.O.N.E.in predicting SFR.However,they can not predict postoperative complications.
2019, 41 (4): 501-505
ZHEN Hongnan,TIAN Yuan,SHEN Jing,MA Jiabin,WANG Wenhui,GUAN Hui,MIAO Zheng,ZHANG Yuan,HU Ke,ZHANG Fuquan
Objective To investigate the sexual quality of life and its influencing factors in patients with cervical cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Methods Totally 205 patients with cervical cancer who received radiotherapy in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 2013 to December 2018 were enrolled in this study.The Female Sexual Function Index(FSFI)scale was used to assess the sexual quality of life of these patients.The demographic data(including age,education level,marital status,family status,and occupation)and clinical data(including tumor stage and treatment method)were collected.Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to analyze the influence of various factors on the sexual quality of life. Results Female sexual dysfunction was common among patients with cervical cancer undergoing radiotherapy.The total FSFI score was 5.5(3.6,16.3),and the scores of subscales were as follows:desire,1.20(0,1.80);sexual arousal,0.90(0,1.80);vaginal lubrication,0.30(0,3.30);orgasm,0(0,2.80);satisfaction,2.40(1.60,3.60);and sexual pain,0(0,2.80).Age(P=0.010),duration of radiotherapy(P=0.008),marital status(P=0.020),family status(P=0.010),and occupation(P=0.024)were influential factors of sexual quality of life in cervical cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Conclusions The sexual quality of life of patients with cervical cancer undergoing radiotherapy is affected by multiple factors.Instructions on treatment,mental status,and post-treatment sexual life should be offered in an individualized way to improve the sexual quality of life of these patients.
2019, 41 (4): 506-511
WANG Zheng,YANG Hong,JIN Meng,ZHANG Huimin,CHEN Xuanfu,WU Meixu,GUO Mingyue,HUANG Changzhi,QIAN Jiaming
Objective To investigate the expressions of mucosal barrier proteins in colon cell line DLD-1 under hypoxic environment in vitro and its mechanism. Methods After DLD-1 cells were treated separately with hypoxia(l% O2),vitamin D(100 nmol/L),or vitamin D plus hypoxia for 48 hours,the expressions of vitamin D receptor(VDR),tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1(ZO-1),occludin,Claudin-1,and adherent junction protein(E-cadherin)were determined by Western blot.Stable VDR knock-down(Sh-VDR)DLD-1 cell line and control DLD-1 cell line were established by lentivirus package technology and the protein expressions after hypoxia treatment were detected. Results Compared with control group,the expressions of occludin,Claudin-1,and VDR increased significantly after hypoxia treatment(all P<0.001).In addition to the protein expressions of occludin,Claudin-1 and VDR,the expressions of ZO-1 and E-cadherin were also obviously higher in vitamin D plus hypoxia group than in single vitamin D treatment group(all P<0.001).After hypoxia treatment,Sh-VDR cell line showed significantly decreased expressions of ZO-1(P<0.001),occludin(P<0.05),Claudin-1(P<0.01)and E-cadherin(P<0.001)when compared with untreated Sh-VDR cell line. Conclusion VDR acts as a regulator for the expressions of intestinal mucosal barrier proteins under hypoxia environment in DLD-1 colon cell line,indicating that VDR pathway may be another important protective mechanism for gut barrier in low-oxygen environment.
2019, 41 (4): 512-516
ZHU Ran,PANG Junyi,YANG Chunming,HUO Zhen
Objective To study the clinicopathologic characteristics,immunohistochemical features,differential diagnosis,and prognosis of solitary fibrous tumours(SFT)/hemangiopericytomas(HPC)in the maters(meninx). Methods A series of 7 cases previously diagnosed as SFT/HPC at the Department of Pathology,Peking Union Medical College Hospital,during the period from 2008 to 2018 were analyzed for clinical data,histopathology,and immunohistochemical findings.The patients were followed up and the relevant literatures were reviewed. Results These seven patients included two males and 5 females aged 22 to 77 years(mean,49 years).Headache was the most common symptom.The magnetic resonance imaging of SFT/HPC showed irregularly contoured masses and dural tail sign was observed at the periphery of the lesion in 4 cases.The major axis of the tumor ranged from 1.8 cm to 10 cm(mean,4 cm).The tumors were located in the mater in 6 cases and in the spinal meninx in 1 case.The tumors were surgically removed in all cases.Under light microscope,the tumors were formed by long round,oval or spindle cells,with rich branching vascular pattern and varying quantity of collagenous fibers bands in both sparse areas and dense areas.According the WHO classification,2 cases were in WHO grade Ⅰ,2 cases in WHO grade Ⅱ,and 3 cases in WHO grade Ⅲ.Immunohistochemistry of the paraffin-embedded tissues in all cases showed positive immunoreativity for CD34 and vimentin in all seven cases,along with positive signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 in 4 cases,negative epithelial membrane antigen and S-100 in 7 cases,and negative progestational hormone and somatostatin receptor 2 in 6 cases.The Ki-67 index ranged from 1% to 15%.Five patients with follow-up data(including 1 current case)were alive,while 2 patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusions The SFT/HPC are rare in the maters(meninx)and is clinically difficult to be differentiated from other meningioma.The combination of CD34 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 helps to diagnose this disease.
2019, 41 (4): 517-523
ZHANG Ying,LUO Yukun,ZHANG Yan,ZHANG Mingbo,GUANG Yang,XIE Fang,JIANG Bo,TANG Jie
Objective To analyze the potential associations of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration(FNA),BRAF V600E gene mutation detection,and the combination of these two techniques with the clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid cancer(PTC). Methods Patients with PTC confirmed by surgery from April 2016 to July 2017 were included in this study.The relationship between clinicopathological features and BRAF V600E mutation,FNA results,and the combination of them were explored. Results The sensitivity of FNA was 86.3%(227/263)and the mutation rate of BRAF V600E was 85.9%(226/263)in 263 patients with PTC.The mutation rate of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma(PTMC)was 91.1%(153/168)and that of non-PTMC was 76.8%(73/95).A total of 225 patients underwent lymph node dissection.The lymph node metastasis rate was 35.6%(80/225),and it was 23.8%(34/143)in PTMC,56.1%(46/82)in non-PTMC;in addition,9.9%(26/263)of PTC patients had extracapsular invasion.BRAF V600E mutation rate was higher in patients with the following features:aged over 45 years(P=0.043);the tumor was FNA diagnosed as malignant or suspected malignant(P=0.011);the tumor had a maximum diameter of ≤1 cm(P=0.001);and the primary tumor was in stage T1(P=0.039);however,there was no significant difference in BRAF V600E mutation rate among patients with different sex,capsule invasion,or lymph node metastasis.The diagnostic sensitivity of FNA was not statistically different under different clinical and pathological characteristics.The clinicopathologic features of FNA and BRAF V600E double-positive patients were not significantly different from those of other patients. Conclusion FNA-confirmed malignancy,BRAF V600E gene mutation,and their double-positive results are not correlated with the invasive pathological features of PTC,and thus their roles in guiding an extended operation(or not)are limited.
2019, 41 (4): 524-528
SHEN Hui,XU Qi
Objective To compare the biological functions of astrocytes cultured in vitro by two methods. Methods The primary astrocytes were cultured from rodent neonatal brain,whereas the differentiated astrocytes were prepared by differentiating neural stem cells with fetal bovine serum.The morphologies of these two different types of astrocytes were observed under microscope and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP),an astrocyte-specific marker,was detected by immunofluorescence staining after treatment with 10 cytokines.Changes in GFAP,glutamate synthetase(GS),glutamate-aspartic acid transporter(xCT),neuregulin-1(NRG),N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor(NMDA),lipoprotein lipase(LPL)were detected and compared. Results The morphologies and GFAP expression differed between these two astrocyte types.Microarray showed that the expressions of GFAP,GS,xCT,NRG,NMDA,and LPL were significantly higher in primary astrocytes than in differentiated astrocytes.None of these 10 cytokines increased the expression of GFAP in primary astrocytes,whereas treatment with transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β)significantly increased the expression of GFAP in the differentiated astrocytes. Conclusion Compared with the differentiated astrocytes,the primary astrocytes are more similar to reactive astrocytes,and TGF-β can promote the transition of differentiated cells to reactive cells.
2019, 41 (4): 529-535
Objective To investigate the effect of N-acetylcysteine(NAC)on cognitive function and nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2/ heme oxygenase-1(Nrf2/HO-1)pathway in mouse models of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Methods Fifty-four male C57BL/6J mice(3-4 months old)were randomly divided into control group,surgery group,and surgery+NAC group by block randomization.The intramedullary fixation for left tibial fracture surgery was performed to establish postoperative cognitive dysfunction models.NAC(150 mg/kg)was administered intraperitoneally in group surgery+NAC 30 minutes before and 3 hours,6 hours after surgery,while saline was given in control group and surgery group.Six mice in each group were selected randomly underwent Morris water maze test on the third day after surgery.Animals were sacrificed at the first and third postoperative days,and the hippocampus was harvested.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify the levels of interleukin-6(IL-6)and malondialdehyde(MDA)in hippocampus.Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to measure the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 in hippocampus. Results There was no significant difference in swimming speed among three groups(F=2.135,P=0.114).Compared with control group and surgery+NAC group,the surgery group had prolonged escape latency(P<0.01),reduced platform crossing times(P<0.01),and shortened time spent in the target quadrant(P<0.01).Compared with the control group,the surgery group and the surgery+NAC group had significantly increased levels of IL-6 and MDA in hippocampus at the first postoperative day(all P=0.000).On the third postoperative day,there was no significant difference in the levels of IL-6(P=0.251)and MDA(P=0.103)between control group and surgery+NAC group.The protein expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 in hippocampus were significantly higher in surgery group and surgery+NAC group than in control group and significantly higher in surgery+NAC group than in surgery group(all P=0.000).The mRNA expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 in hippocampus were significantly higher in surgery group and surgery+NAC group than in control group and significantly higher in surgery+NAC group than in surgery group (all P=0.000). Conclusions NAC pretreatment may reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory response in hippocampus and improve cognitive function.Such effect may be relate to the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.
2019, 41 (4): 536-540
LI Qi,YANG Jun,YANG Jian,YANG Ying
Apoptosis plays important roles in maintaining normal development and homeostasis and in the pathophysiological processes of various diseases.Previous studies have shown that cardiomyocyte apoptosis is involved in the development of various cardiovascular diseases.The apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain(ARC)is abundantly expressed in heart,which makes ARC a unique and central cardioprotective factor via anti-apoptotic pathway.This article reviews the structure and characteristics of ARC as well as the roles and mechanisms of ARC in cardiovascular diseases.
2019, 41 (4): 541-547
XU Xiaohan,YU Xuerong,HUANG Yuguang
Perioperative restrictive red blood cell(RBC)transfusion strategy,in which a trigger of hemoglobin(Hb)<7 g/dl is used,is of great benefits to save blood storage and reduce transfusion-related adverse events including infections,immunologic risks,and circulatory overload.Human body can display a series of compensatory mechanisms to acute anemia,including increased cardiac output,favored oxyhemoglobin dissociation,and lung vascular dilation.Therefore,moderate Hb decrease does not necessarily lead to hypoxemia.Patients undergoing hip surgery or suffering from septic shock and/or upper gastrointestinal bleeding can benefit from restrictive RBC transfusion;however,restrictive transfusion may be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease or undergoing cardiac surgery.Restrictive RBC transfusion strategies have been included in described in many different guidelines.Most of them recommended Hb<7 g/dl to be a trigger for allogeneic RBC transfusion.For patients with an Hb of 7-10 g/dl,the application of restrictive RBC transfusion should be based on the expected blood loss,compensatory ability,and metabolic rate.
2019, 41 (4): 548-555
SHEN Jie, ZENG Zhihui, YANG Lei, ZENG Maojun, OUYANG Zheshen, ZHAO Mingyi, YANG Minghua
Leukemia is a disease featured by the malignant proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells or progenitor cells in the blood system.While chemotherapy remains its mainstream treatment,disease relapse and drug resistance are still challenging problems.As one of the epigenetic mechanisms,histone methylation is involved in cell proliferation,differentiation,and apoptosis by regulating gene transcription.Recent studies have found that the histone demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 6A(KDM6A),also known as ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on chromosome X(UTX),is closely related to the occurrence of a variety of tumors,especially leukemia.KDM6A activates gene expression by demethylating H3K27me3 to H3K27me2 or H3K27me1.Besides,KDM6A can regulate the activation of the target gene transcription through its non-demethylase functions.It can serve as the subunit of complex of proteins associated with Set1,thus getting involved in the regulation of H3K4me1.It can be combined with yeast mating type conversion/sucrose unfermented complex family to promote the formation of an open chromatin conformation.Finally,it can promote the production of H3K27ac.This article reviews the recent studies on the structure and biological activity of histone demethylase KDM6A(UTX)and its role in treating leukemia,thus providing a new research direction for targeted treatment of leukemia.
2019, 41 (4): 556-561
DENG Leihong,GONG Yun,HUANG Xiaolin,CHAO Haichao
Exosomes are 30-100 nm vesicles secreted from almost all types of cells.They contain various molecular constituents,including proteins,lipids,and RNA.As important mediators of cell-to-cell communication,exosomes are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as inflammatory reaction,cell proliferation and differentiation,tissue repair,immune signal transduction,and stress response.Exosomes can regulate and maintain the initiation and progression of many autoimmune diseases,especially rheumatoid arthritis.Meanwhile,exosomes may be a new biomarker for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and a potential treatment vector for this disease.
2019, 41 (4): 562-565
BAI Xiaoyin,WU Dong
Acute pancreatitis(AP)is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas following the activationt of pancreatic enzymes induced by a variety of factors,with or without other organ dysfunction.The production and release of inflammatory factors is generally considered as a key link during pathogenesis.Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs)are the most commonly applied agents for inflammatory diseases.Many studies have proved that indomethacin can reduce the risk of pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography;however,few high-quality evidences have demonstrated the roles of NSAIDs in treating,rather than preventing AP.Most animal experiments have shown that NSAIDs can protect organs,although the currently available findings remained inconsistent.Randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes are warranted to elucidate the roles of NSAIDs in treating AP.
2019, 41 (4): 566-571
WANG Dongliang,SONG Haidong,XU Ke,LIU Ruen
Epilepsy has high incidence and complex etiologies,and its treatment remains challenging.For around 70% of people with epilepsy,seizures can be controlled after proper antiepileptic treatment.The availability of some new antiepileptic drugs in recent years has offered new options for epileptic patients.A solid knowledge on the pharmacokinetics,efficacy,and tolerability profiles of these new antiepileptic drugs will help to provide safe,proper,reasonable,and standardized treatment for patients.
2019, 41 (4): 572-574
HAN Wenguang,XUE Huadan,PAN Weidong
Bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital cysts caused by anomalism of foregut in the embryonic stage.They locate most frequently in the mediastinum and are rarely seen in stomach.Here we report a case of gastric bronchogenic cysts that was diagnosed and treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from April 2 to 9,2018.
2019, 41 (4): 575-578
DENG Wanling,LI Juan,ZHU Liang,HE Ming,XUE Huadan,JIN Zhengyu
Autoimmune pancreatitis(AIP)is radiologically characterized by sausage-like diffuse swelling of the pancreatic parenchyma but may also be found as a localized mass that is easily misdiagnosed as a pancreatic neoplasm.AIP presenting as multifocal masses is rare.Here we report a case of multifocal IgG4-related AIP,in which the lesions grew in size and finally fused to become radiologically typical.