2020, 42 (3): 283-288
LIU Yuzhen,ZENG Rong,DUAN Zhimin,XU Haoxiang,WU Qiuju,CHEN Qing,LIN Tong,LI Min
Objective To investigate the effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) on Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) biofilm. Methods P.acnes biofilms were constructed on a cell slide and treated with ALA-PDT.According to different light doses,the biofilms were divided into six groups:ALA-PDT group [ALA-PDT1 (50 J/cm2),ALA-PDT2 group (100 J/cm2),ALA-PDT3 group (200 J/cm2)],ALA-only group (ALA group),light-only group (LED),and a negative control group (ALA-PDT-group).The biofilm structure and the ratio of the dead bacteria/live bacteria were observed using a laser confocal microscope (CLSM).Biofilm viability was measured using the XTT assay. Results CLSM showed that the biofilm structures of ALA group and LED group were not significantly different from that of ALA-PDT-group,whereas the biofilm structure was more seriously damaged in ALA-PDT1 group,ALA-PDT2 group,and ALA-PDT3 group than in the ALA-PDT-group.The ratios of the dead/live bacteria in ALA-PDT-group,ALA group,LED group,ALA-PDT1 group,ALA-PDT2 group,and ALA-PDT3 group were 0.350±0.033, 0.305±0.046, 0.330±0.032, 1.525±0.439, 2.293±0.148 and 3.092±0.189,respectively.ALA group(md=0.003, P=1.000)and LED group(md=-0.025, P=1.000)did not significantly differ from the ALA-PDT-group.However,the ratio of dead/live bacteria in ALA-PDT-group was significantly lower than those in ALA-PDT1 group (md=-0.162, P<0.001),ALA-PDT2 group (md=-0.254, P<0.001),and ALA-PDT3 group (md=-0.352, P<0.001).The values of the XTT assay were were 0.462±0.028,0.465±0.044,0.437±0.047,0.301±0.040,0.207±0.001,and 0.110±0.007,respectively,in ALA-PDT-group,ALA group,LED group,ALA-PDT1 group,ALA-PDT2 group,and ALA-PDT3 group.Although the values of XTT assay in ALA(md=-0.044, P=1.000)and LED groups (md=-0.020, P=1.000)did not significantly differ from that in ALA-PDT-group,it was significantly higher in ALA-PDT-group than in ALA-PDT1 group (md=1.175, P<0.001),ALA-PDT2 group (md=1.942, P<0.001),and ALA-PDT3 group (md=-0.352, md=2.742, P<0.001). Conclusions ALA-PDT has an inhibitory effect on P.acnes biofilm.ALA-PDT destroys biofilm structure and inhibits biofilm viability.
2020, 42 (3): 289-296
ZHANG Aidong,SHI Juan
Objective To analyze the expression of splicing factors in gastric cancer using bioinformatics methods and investigate the effect of aberrantly expressed serine/arginine-rich splicing factor(SRSF10)on the phenotype of gastric cancer cells. Methods The RNA-seq data of gastric cancer and paracancerous tissues were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA)cancer database,and bioinformatics analysis was performed to obtain the splicing factors differentially expressed in gastric cancer.The splicing factor SRSF10 was selected to investigate its effect on the development of gastric cancer.RNA interference technology was used to construct SRSF10 knockdown gastric cancer cells.MTS,Transwell,and cell scratches were used to study the effect of SRSF10 knockdown on gastric cancer cell phenotype. Results A total of 48 splicing factors were identified in gastric cancer by a series of bioinformatics techniques,of which 35 were up-regulated and 13 were down-regulated.The splicing factor SRSF10,which was up-regulated,was selected for further study.It was found that the gastric cancer cells after SRSF10 knockdown proliferated more slowly and had lower migration ability than normal gastric cancer cells. Conclusions Multiple splicing factors are found in gastric cancer and may play an important role in the development of gastric cancer.The splicing factor SRSF10 may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.
2020, 42 (3): 297-306
LIU Xiuping,ZHENG Zheng,YU Liling,HU Juan,LI Xiachun
Objective To explore whether the downregulation of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit(PP2Ac)involved in the pathogenesis of mitochondria fission/fusion dynamics and functional imbalance induced by human tau accumulation. Methods After cotransfection with mito-dsRed plasmids and pIRES-eGFP-tau40 plasmids 48 hours,the rat primary hippocampal neurons were observed with a laser scanning confocal microscope for their changes in shape and distribution of mitochondria.The expressions of mitochondria fission/fusion protein and PP2Ac and PP2Ab were detected by Western blotting.Furthermore,the shape and distribution of mitochondria of rat primary hippocampal neuron and wild type 293wt cells were assayed 48 hours after co-transfection with siPP2Ac-EGFP plasmids and mito-DsRed plasmids,and the fission/fusion dynamics of 293wt cells was captured with live cell time-lapse imaging after co-transfection with siPP2Ac plasmids and mito-Dendra2 plasmids.After transfection with siPP2Ac plasmids,the relative level of mitochondria fission/fusion protein of 293wt cells was assayed by Western blotting,and mitochondria membrane potential was detected by JC-1 staining,and the cellular viability was measured by CCK8 assay.Finally,the shape and distribution and membrane potential of mitochondria of HEK293 cells with stable transfection of htau40(293htau)were detected after co-transfection with PP2Ac and mito-dsRed plasmids. Results Human tau40 expression decreased distribution of mitochondria and significantly lowered PP2Ac level in primary hippocampal neuron(t=4.814, P=0.0086).Down-regulation of PP2Ac caused mitochondria elongation and perinuclear accumulation in primary hippocampal neuron and 293wt cells;in addition,down-regulation of PP2Ac in 293wt cells significantly increased mitochondria fusion rate(t=2.857, P=0.0074)and the levels of mitochondria fusion protein mitofusin(MFN)1(t=6.768, P=0.0025),MFN2(t=3.121, P=0.0035),and optic atrophy 1(t=3.775, P=0.0199);however,the levels of dynamin-like protein-1 and Fis1 remained unchanged.The down-regulation of PP2Ac in 293wt cells led to the significant decrease in mitochondria membrane potential(t=2.300, P=0.0270)and cell viability(t=6.249, P<0.0001).Finally,up-regulation of PP2Ac attenuated the abnormalities in the shape,distribution and function of mitochondria in the 293htau cells. Conclusion Down-regulation of PP2Ac is involved in the abnormal shape and distribution of mitochondria and its dysfunction induced by human tau40 in rat primary hippocampal neurons and HEK293 cells.
2020, 42 (3): 307-312
MAO Ni,CHEN Jinwei,WANG Jia,XIE Xi,LI Fen,LIU Yiming
Objective To investigate the relationship of both DNA methylation level and methylenetrahydrofolate reductase(MTHFR)gene polymorphism with ankylosing spondylitis(AS). Methods Totally 200 Chinese AS patients with HLA-B27(+)and 120 healthy controls were included from Hunan Province.All the cases were diagnosed according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS.The DNA methylation was examined by cytosine extension method,while the MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism was analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction(PCR)and restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP).The plasma homocysteine(Hcy)level was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),while the red blood folate level was analyzed by the specific immunoassays. Results The ratio of the T/T genotype mutation in the AS group was significantly higher than in the control group(17.0% vs. 5.0%;χ2=9.874, P=0.002).The plasma homocysteine concentration of AS group was(18.71 ± 2.42)μmol/L,which was significantly higher than that in normal control group [(10.97 ± 2.93)μmol/L](t=24.402, P<0.001).The plasma Hcy concentration of the T/T genotype [(21.70±1.80)μmol/L] was significantly higher than that of the C/C genotype[(18.31±1.94)μmol/L](q=12.088, P=0.01)and the C/T genotype [(17.80±2.18)μmol/L](q=6.496, P=0.01)in the AS group.The DNA methylation level of the T/T genotype in AS group was significantly lower than that in normal control group(t=5.655, P<0.001)and also significantly lower than those of the C/C genotype(t=11.514, P<0.001)and the C/T genotype in AS group(t=10.287, P<0.001). Conclusions In the Han population in Hunan Province,the C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene is associated with the onset of AS.The T/T mutation at position 677 of the MTHFR gene is an important influencing factor for hyperhcyemia in the AS patients.The T/T mutation at position 677 of the MTHFR gene is associated with genomic DNA hypomethylation.Thus,hypomethylation of DNA may be one of the pathogenic mechanisms of AS.
2020, 42 (3): 313-318
KIM Mirim,YANG Nana,SHAO Jiakai,YANG Jingwen,SHI Guangxia,YAN Chaoqun,LIU Cunzhi
Objective To investigate the effects of Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori)infection on autonomic nervous function and calcitonin gene-related peptide in patients with functional dyspepsia(FD). Methods Thirty-one patients with FD matching Rome Ⅳ criteria were included and divided into H.pylori-positive group and H.pylori-negative group.All patients were evaluated by Symptom Index of Dyspepsia(SID),Nepean Dyspepsia Index(NDI),and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(HADS).Their heart rate variability(HRV)and calcitonin gene-related peptide(CGRP)level were also measured. Results There were no significant differences in SID(Z=-0.858, P=0.858),NDI(Z=-1.464, P=0.143),and Hospital Depression Scale score(Z=0.699, P=0.485).However,the Hospital Anxiety Scale score was significantly higher in H.pylori-positive group than the H.pylori-negative group(Z=-2.470, P=0.014).The level of CGRP in H.pylori-positive group[(0.999±0.274)ng/ml]was significantly higher than that in the H.pylori-negative group[(0.812±0.172)ng/ml;t=2.238, P=0.033].HRV data showed no significant difference between these two groups at very low frequency(t=-1.210, P=0.236),low frequency(LF)(t=0.419, P=0.678),high frequency(HF)(t=0.612, P=0.546),LF/HF(t=-0.882, P=0.399),and total power(t=-0.963, P=0.344). Conclusion In FD patients,patients with H.pylori-positive FD patients have higher depression and CGRP levels than those without H.pylori infection,although their dyspepsia symptoms and HRV show no notable changes.
2020, 42 (3): 319-326
MA Mingxing,CHANG Qian,YU Cuntao,SHU Chang,QIAN Xiangyang,SUN Xiaogang,MA Qiong,WEI Bo,HU Xiaopeng
Objective To evaluate the early and mid-term results after surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm(TAAA)in patients with DeBakey typeⅠor Ⅲ aortic dissection. Methods The clinical data of 130 patients who underwent TAAA repair for chronic DeBakey typeⅠ(groupⅠ, n=47)or type Ⅲ(group Ⅲ, n=83)aortic dissections in our center between January 2009 and December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed.Early postoperative results,midterm survival,and re-interventions were compared between these two groups. Results The 30-day mortality rate was 6.9%(n=9)in the overall cohort,with no statistic difference between groupⅠand group Ⅲ(10.6% vs. 4.8%;χ2=0.803, P=0.370).The incidence of major adverse events(38.3% vs. 51.8%;χ2=2.199, P=0.138),5-year actuarial survival rate [(81.7±5.9)% vs.(87.2±4.2)%;χ2=0.483, P=0.487],and 5-year actuarial freedom from all reinterventions [(84.5±6.7)% vs.(85.5±4.8)%;χ2=0.010, P=0.920] showed no significant differences between these two groups. Conclusions The early and mid-term outcomes after surgical repair of TAAA are similar for DeBakey typeⅠ and type Ⅲ patients.However,studies with larger sample sizes are still required.
2020, 42 (3): 327-330
YU Liyun,SUN Lizhi,WANG Fei,ZHAO Xiaoyan,HAN Wenyong
Objective To investigate cerebral autoregulation(CA)in patients with severe unilateral carotid artery stenosis by near infrared spectroscopy. Methods Thirty patients who underwent general anesthesia in our hospital from January 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled in this study.The stenosis group included 15 patients with severe unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis,and the control group included 15 patients without carotid artery stenosis.Both groups were matched in sex and age.Cerebral tissue oxygenation index(TOI)and mean arterial pressure were recorded continuously under stable general anesthesia.The Pearson correlation coefficient(r)was calculated to judge the CA status. Results TOI was not significantly different between the stenosis side and the non-stenosis side in the stenosis group(66.52±6.50 vs. 65.23±4.50;t=0.93, P=0.368)or between the stenosis side in the stenosis group and the stenosis side in the control group(66.52±6.50 vs. 64.22±3.87;t=1.18, P=0.248).The r values of stenosis side and non-stenosis side in the stenosis group were 0.36±0.12 and 0.17±0.11,respectively,and the r values of the stenosis side in the stenosis group and the stenosis side of the control group were 0.36±0.12 and 0.13±0.08,respectively.In the stenosis group,5 patients had transient ischemic attack and 2 patients had a history of stroke within 3 months before operation.When an r value of 0.342 was used as the judgment point of CA abnormality,the sensitivity and specificity were 0.625 and 0.909,respectively. Conclusion Within the range of normal blood pressure fluctuation,cerebral blood flow is linked to blood pressure at the stenosis side in patients with severe unilateral carotid artery stenosis.
2020, 42 (3): 331-337
ZHU Yaqiong,JIN Zhuang,ZHANG Ying,JIANG Bo,YAN Lin,TIAN Xiaoqi,ZHANG Mingbo,LUO Yukun
Objective To investigate the value of injecting a small amount of absolute ethanol into the benign solid nodules of the thyroid before radiofrequency ablation(RFA)to improve the efficiency of radiofrequency ablation. Methods A total of 98 eligible patients(98 nodules)with pathologically confirmed benign solid nodules who were treated in our center from December 2016 to February 2018 were included and randomized into ethanol ablation(EA)combined with radiofrequency ablation(RFA)group(EA+RFA group)and RFA group,with 49 patients in each group.Routine ultrasound,contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS),and thyroid function test were performed before treatment and 1,3,6,and 12 months after treatment.The general information,treatment time,ablation energy,ablation power,postoperative nodule volume reduction ratio(VRR),symptom score(SS)and cosmetic score(CS),thyroid function level,and incidence of complications were compared between these two groups. Results The mean treatment time [(441.30±243.31)s vs.(790.70±349.82)s;t= 4.403, P=0.000],mean ablation energy [(3.92±2.01)kJ vs.(5.15±2.12)kJ;t=2.709, P=0.009],and mean ablation power [(6.07±1.44)W vs.(7.30±1.29)W;t=3.612, P=0.006] were significantly lower in the EA+RFA group than in the RFA group.At 3,6 and 12 months after surgery,the VRR in the EA+RFA group was(57.73±11.07)%(t=-3.16, P<0.001),(64.40±10.56)%(t=-5.45, P<0.001),and(77.29±8.48)%(t=-10.46, P<0.001),respectively;the VRR in the RFA group was(55.44±13.01)%(t=-1.76, P<0.001),(65.28±11.33)%(t=-5.09, P<0.001),and(75.17±9.84)%(t=-8.93, P<0.001),which were significantly smaller than those before surgery.There was no significant difference in VRR between the EA+RFA group and the RFA group at 1(t=3.41, P=0.33),3(t=2.05, P=0.21),6(t=2.77, P=0.49),and 12 months(t=5.05, P=0.10)after treatment.During the follow-up,no recurrence of nodules was observed on CEUS.In the EA+RFA group,the SS [(1.77±0.86)vs.(5.54±2.15);t=9.63, P<0.001] and the CS[(1.39±0.77)vs.(3.32±0.61);t=10.09, P=0.004]at 12 months after surgery were significantly lower than those before surgery.In the RFA group,SS [(1.63±1.04)vs.(5.90±1.79);t=12.72, P<0.001] and CS [(1.64±0.83)vs.(3.15±0.72);t=8.13, P=0.012] at 12 months after surgery were also significantly lower than those before surgery.The CSS in the EA+RFA group was significantly lower than that in the RFA group [(0.93±0.55)vs.(2.44±0.53);t=-11.70, P=0.007].Both groups had no significant change in thyroid function during the follow-up period,and no serious complications were observed. Conclusion Anhydrous alcohol injection can effectively improve the efficiency of radiofrequency ablation in treating benign solid thyroid nodules and is effective in reducing nodule volume,alleviating compressive symptoms,and decreasing cosmetic discomfort.
2020, 42 (3): 338-346
LIU Qing,XU Xiaohan,XU Li,HUANG Yuguang
Objective To observe the cell origin of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid(NMDA)receptor expression in skin after chronic ischemic pain modeling in rats and explore the role of NMDA receptor in type Ⅰ complex regional pain syndrome. Methods Forty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups:sham operation group(n=12),chronic post ischemia pain(CPIP)group(n=12),CPIP+normal saline(NS)group(n=6),CPIP+NMDA group(n=6),and CPIP+MK801 group(n=6).Six rats in the sham operation group and CPIP group were sacrificed under deep anesthesia one day after modeling.The plantar skin and L3-L5 spinal cord tissue were used for NR1(NMDA receptor)subunit immunofluorescence detection and for Western blotting of NR1,interleukin(IL)-1β,and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α.For the remaining rats,the mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT)values on the 2nd,6th,10th and 14th day after ischemia were recorded,and the corresponding drugs were injected subcutaneously from the 6th day after ischemia.The skin and L3-L5 spinal cords were collected on the 14th day,and the same detection methods were applied. Results Compared with the sham operation group,the CPIP group had significantly higher expressions of NR1(1.708±0.064;t=12.120, P<0.001),IL-1β(2.575±0.305;t=5.158, P=0.003),and TNF-α(2.691±0.217;t=7.786, P<0.001)in the skin on the first day after modeling.After intervention with NMDA and MK801,the MWT value was [(20.37±0.95)g] in the CPIP+NS group,which was significantly higher than that in CPIP+NMDA group [(15.85±1.09)g;q=10.920, P<0.001] but significantly lower than that in CPIP+MK801 group[(22.95±0.96)g;q=6.421, P<0.001] 10 days after modeling.On the 14th day,compared with the MWT of the CPIP+NS group [(21.57±0.96)g],the CPIP+NMDA group had significantly decreased MWT value [(16.53±1.63)g;q=12.190, P<0.001],and the CPIP+MK801 group had significantly increased MWT value [(23.27±1.28)g;q=4.094, P=0.025].Compared with the sham operation group,the CPIP group had significantly increased NR1 expression(1.708±0.064;t=10.910, P<0.001)and the CPIP+NS group had significantly increased expressions of IL-1β(2.518±0.147;q=11.010, P<0.001)and TNF-α(1.949±0.184;q=10.870, P<0.001).Compared with the CPIP+NS group,the CPIP+NMDA group had significantly increased expressions of IL-1β(4.816±0.607;q=16.670, P=0.003)and TNF-α(2.629±0.349;q=7.790, P<0.001)and the CPIP+MK801 group had significantly decreased expressions of IL-1β(1.048±0.257;q=10.660, P=0.003)and TNF-α(0.790±0.165;q=13.280, P<0.001). Conclusion NMDA receptor activation in skin keratinocytes after chronic ischemia in rats hinders the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α,which may be involved in central sensitization and pain conduction of type Ⅰ complex regional pain syndrome.
2020, 42 (3): 347-353
LI Ying,XU Hongyan,FENG Xinglin,LIU Kaibo
Objective To analyze the efficiency of prenatal ultrasound screening service in Beijing and thus optimize the secondary prevention system for birth defects in Beijing. Methods Data were collected from the prenatal screening work reports of Beijing from 2010-2016.Key variables were extracted after data quality control.Data envelopment analysis was performed to analyze the efficiency and changing trend of ultrasound-based screening service and to compare the service efficiency between urban and suburban areas in Beijing. Results From 2010 to 2016,the technical efficiency of ultrasound screening services showed an increasing trend,and the geometric mean of technical efficiency in suburban areas was higher than that in urban areas.From 2010 to 2016,the total factor productivity of ultrasound screening service increased by 12.3% annually,in which the technical change increased by 12.0% annually;the technical efficiency increased by 0.3%,the pure technical efficiency increased by 13.9% annually,and the scale efficiency decreased by 0.4%.Conclusions The technical efficiency of ultrasound screening service in Beijing increased from 2010 to 2016,and the total factor productivity improved.Technical change and pure technical efficiency change were the main reasons for the improvement.The resource allocation should be further optimized to improve the scale efficiency and enhance the training of prenatal ultrasound screening technicians.
2020, 42 (3): 354-358
SHI Jinxi,CAI Dongxu,ZHAO Xinbin,QI Zhi
Objective To explore the correlation between the transluminal attenuation gradient with corrected contrast opacification(TAG-CCO)and the severity of atherosclerotic stenosis in the anterior segment of myocrardial bridge(MB). Methods The imaging data of 200 patients diagnosed with left anterior descending branch(LAD)single MB and coronary atherosclerosis in the anterior segment of MB were retrospectively analyzed.According to MB types,the patients were divided into two groups:incomplete and complete.There were some significant differences in TAG-CCO between patients with the same degree of coronary atherosclerosis(mild,moderate,and severe stenosis)in two groups.The relationships among groups with different degrees(mild,moderate,and severe stenosis)of the same type of MB were further compared. Results Among 84 patients with complete MB,36,30,and 18 patients had mild,moderate,or severe coronary atherosclerosis in the anterior segment of MB;among 116 patients with incomplete MB,45,42,and 29 patients had mild,moderate,or severe coronary atherosclerosis in the anterior segment of MB.In the complete MB group,the TAG-CCO in the anterior segment of MB subgroups were(-0.0086±0.0014)/10 mm,(-0.0170±0.0180)/10 mm,and(-0.0230±0.0026)/10 mm,respectively,in mild,moderate,and severe subgroups(F = 404.728, P<0.001).In the incomplete MB group,the TAG-CCO of patients with mild,moderate and severe coronary stenosis in the anterior segment of MB were(-0.0039±0.0011)/10 mm,(-0.0100±0.0140)/10 mm,and(-0.0160±0.0020)/10 mm,respectively,and the difference among the different stenosis groups was statistically significant(F = 17.756, P < 0.001);the TAG-CCO of patients with mild(t = 16.519, P < 0.001),moderate(t = 2.570, P = 0.012)and severe anterior segment coronary stenosis(t = 10.714, P < 0.001)were significantly lower in the complete MB group than in the incomplete MB group. Conclusions TAG-CCO is correlated with the MB type and the degree of anterior coronary artery stenosis.Thus,TAG-CCO can be used as a predictive indicator for the degree of atheroscleratic stenosis in the anterior segment of MB.
2020, 42 (3): 359-363
ZOU Ying,WANG Shiwei,LI Tao,CHEN Ke,ZHANG Xinghua,LUO Chuncai,YANG Li
Objective To evaluate the effect of monochromatic energy image on inferior vena cava imaging quality on dual-layer detector spectral CT. Methods Totally 39 patients who were clinically suspected of abdominal disease and referred to perform contrast-enhanced computed tomography(CT)were prospectively enrolled and underwent abdominal examination using a single-source,dual-detector spectral CT.The delayed phase scan was performed 3 minutes after injection of 60 ml of iopamidol(320 mg/ml)at a rate of 3 ml/s.The raw images were reconstructed to obtain conventional mixed energy images and spectral based images(SBI).The 40,50,60,and 70 keV single energy images were obtained.The CT value,noise,and signal-to-noise(SNR)of inferior vena cava and the contrast-to-noise(CNR)of inferior vena cava relative to psoas major on conventional mixed energy images and the 40,50,60,70 keV single energy images were measured.The SNRs and CNRs on monoenergetic 40-70 keV images were compared with polychromatic 120 kVp images.ANOVA was used to compare the CT value,noise,SNR,and CNR among these five groups.The optimal monoenergetic image set was chosen. Results The differences in CT value,noise,SNR,CNR of inferior vena cava were statistically significant among five groups(all P<0.05).The SNR and CNR in 40 keV group and 50 keV group were significantly higher than those in other groups(all P<0.05).The SNR of 40 keV group was significantly higher than that of 50 keV group(P=0.002).The CNR of 40 keV group was not statistical different compared with that of 50 keV group(P=0.630). Conclusion 40 keV is the optimal monoenergetic energy level for the inferior vena cava on dual-layer detector spectral CT and may be valuable for the diagnosis of inferior vena cava disease.
2020, 42 (3): 364-369
ZHAO Yu,ZOU Haiou,GU Jianing,ZHOU Ying,LI Zheng
Objective To understand the survival stress of community-dwelling people with mental disorder. Methods Fifteen cases were selected by purposive sampling and received semi-structured individualized interviews.The data were analyzed by Colaizzi framework and themes were extracted. Results Four themes were extracted:physiological stress due to psychiatric symptoms and side effects of drugs;psychological stress due to the outcome of mental illness and to conflict of roles in daily life;social and environmental stress such as social discrimination,lack of job opportunities,and difficulty in obtaining social welfare resources;and interpersonal stress caused by discrimination and deteriorating family relations. Conclusions Community-dwelling people with mental illness have a higher level survival stress after returning to their families and society,with the stressors including symptoms of illness,social discrimination,and interpersonal relationship.Eliminating self-discrimination of the patients,improving social support and social welfare system,and increasing individualized community mental rehabilitation activities may reduce the survival stress of these patients and promote their rehabilitation.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 Column
2020, 42 (3): 370-375
ZOU Wenbin,LIU Changyu,CAI Yixin,ZENG Zhilin,ZHANG Ni,FU Xiangning
Objective To investigate the computed tomographc(CT)features of mild/moderate and severe/critical cases of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)in the recovery phase. Methods Totally 63 discharged patients in Wuhan,China,who underwent both chest CT and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)from February 1 to February 29,2020,were included.With RT-PCR as a gold standard,the performance of chest CT in diagnosing COVID-19 was assessed.Patients were divided into mild/moderate and severe/critical groups according to the disease conditions,and clinical features such as sex,age,symptoms,hospital stay,comorbidities,and oxygen therapy were collected.CT images in the recovery phase were reviewed in terms of time from onset,CT features,location of lesions,lobe score,and total CT score. Results There were 37 patients in the mild/moderate group and 26 in the severe/critical group. Compared with the mild/moderate patients,the severe/critical patients had older age [(43±16) years vs. (52±16) years; t=2.10, P=0.040], longer hospital stay [(15±6)d vs. (19±7)d; t=2.70, P=0.009], higher dyspnea ratio (5.41% vs. 53.85%; χ2=18.90, P<0.001), lower nasal oxygen therapy ratio (81.08% vs. 19.23%;χ2=23.66, P<0.001), and higher bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation ratio (0 vs. 57.69%; χ2=25.62, P<0.001). Time from onset was (23±6) days in severe/critical group, significantly longer than that in mild/moderate group [(18±7) days] (t=3.40, P<0.001). Severe/critical patients had significantly higher crazy-paving pattern ratio (46.15% vs.10.81%;χ2=4.24, P=0.039) and lower ground-glass opacities ratio (15.38% vs. 67.57%; χ2=16.74, P<0.001) than the mild/moderate patients. The proportion of lesions in peripheral lung was significantly higher in mild/moderate group than in severe/critical group (78.38% vs.34.61%; χ2=13.43, P<0.001), and the proportion of diffusely distributed lesions was significantly higher in severe/critical group than in mild/moderate group (65.38% vs.10.81%; χ2=20.47, P<0.001). Total CT score in severe/critical group was also significantly higher in severe/critical group than in mild/moderate group [11 (8,17) points vs. 7 (4,9) points; Z=3.81, P<0.001]. Conclusions The CT features in the recovery stage differ between mild/moderate and severe/critical COVID-19 patients.The lung infiltration is remarkably more severe in the latter.
2020, 42 (3): 376-382
SONG Lan,SONG Wei,SUI Xin,DU Tiekuan,LIU Wu,WANG Baiyu,LU Xiaoping,XU Yan,YANG Qiwen,CAO Wei,JIN Zhengyu
Objective To summarize the clinical characteristics and chest CT findings of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)patients in Peking Union Medical College Hospital(PUMCH). Methods A total of 13 patients with COVID-19 confirmed at PUMCH from January 20 to February 6,2020 were selected as the research subjects.Their epidemiological histories,clinical characteristics,laboratory tests,and chest CT findings were analyzed retrospectively.The location,distribution,density,and other accompanying signs of abnormal lung CT lesions were recorded,and the clinical types of these patients were assessed. Results The clinical type was “common type” in all these 13 patients aged(46.8±14.7)years(range:27-68 years).Ten patients had a travel history to Wuhan or direct contact with patients from Wuhan,2 cases had recent travel histories,and 1 case had a travel history to Beijing suburb.The white blood cell(WBC)count was normal or decreased in 92.3% of the patients and the lymphocyte count decreased in 15.4% of the patients.Twelve patients(92.3%)had a fever,among whom 11 patients were admitted due to fever and 2 patients(15.4%)had low fever.Eight patients(61.5%)had dry cough.The CT findings in these 13 patients were all abnormal.The lesions were mainly distributed along the bronchi and under the pleura.The lesions were relatively limited in 8 patients(affecting 1-3 lobes,predominantly in the right or left lower lobe),and diffuse multiple lesions of bilateral lungs were seen in 5 patients.The CT findings mainly included ground glass opacities(GGOs)(n=10,76.9%),focal consolidation within GGOs(n=7,53.8%),thickened vascular bundle passing through the lesions(n=10,76.9%),bronchial wall thickening(n=12,92.3%),air bronchogram(n=10,76.9%),vacuole signs in the lesions(n=7,53.8%),fine reticulation and interlobular septal thickening(n=3,23.1%),reversed halo-sign(n=2,15.4%),crazy-paving pattern(n=2,15.4%),and pleural effusion(n=2,15.4%).Conclusions Most of our patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at PUMCH had a travel history to Wuhan or direct contact with patients from Wuhan.The first symptoms of COVID-19 mainly include fever and dry cough,along with normal or reduced counts of WBC and lymphocytes.CT may reveal that the lesions distribute along the bronchi and under the pleura;they are typically localized GGOs in the early stage but can become multiple GGOs and infiltrative consolidation in both lungs in the advanced stage.Scattered vacuole signs may be visible inside the lesions in some patients.
2020, 42 (3): 383-387
WU Na,HU Yuxiang,XU Xiaoxuan,YAN Li,CHENG Yi,RAO Jie,WU Yajun,WU Xiaorong
Myasthenia gravis(MG)is a B cell-mediated,T cell-dependent,complements-involved autoimmune disease.Ocular myasthenia gravis(OMG)is a typical MG,with its symptoms limited to the extraocular muscles.The occurrence and development of a variety of autoimmune diseases including OMG are closely associated with the imbalanced expression of follicular regulatory T cells(Tfr cells).Therefore,Tfr cells may be a new research topic for OMG.
2020, 42 (3): 388-392
CAO Jie,YANG Renqiang
Platelets are non-nuclear blood cells that are widely involved in physiological and pathological processes.Their main role is to participate in hemostasis and thrombosis.Toll-like receptors(TLRs)are innate immune receptors.Platelets express multiple TLRs and can promote thrombosis by recognizing ligand-induced platelet activation and aggregation.This article reviews the relationship between platelets/TLR and thrombosis and the roles of TLRs in the development of thrombotic diseases.
2020, 42 (3): 393-398
JI Lei,LI Fangda,ZHENG Yuehong
The inflammasome is a multiprotein complex localized in the cytoplasm.It can mediate the expressions of various inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin(IL)-1β and IL-18 and plays a key role in regulating inflammatory response.As sterile inflammation,abdominal aortic aneurysm currently can only be treated by surgery.This article reviews the research advances in the role of inflammasomes in abdominal aortic aneurysm.
2020, 42 (3): 399-404
ZHU Zhihui,MENG Fanhao,XIA Jiabin,XU Xiaofeng,HU Yang,ZHANG Aijin,ZHANG Tao
Oral cancer is a common and deadly malignancy.While multidisciplinary treatment(mainly surgery)has been applied in the treatment of cancer treatment,early diagnosis and complete removal of the primary lesion are essential for a better prognosis.Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that detects inelastic scattered light generated by the interaction of light and matter.It can detect the vibrational spectra of biochemical and biomolecular structures and tissue conformations,and can provide the “molecular fingerprint” for cells,tissues,and biological fluids.With the development of related technologies and optical instruments,Raman spectroscopy has been widely applied in medical fields.This article reviews the research advances and application of Raman spectroscopy in the diagnosis of oral cancer.
2020, 42 (3): 405-409
ZHU Changzhen,LI Yuanxin
Radioactive enteritis(RE)is one of the most serious and common complications of intestinal tract caused by radiotherapy for malignant tumors in abdominal cavity,pelvic cavity,or retroperitoneum.Involved intestinal diseases are widespread,complex,and persistent,which make treatment difficult and ineffective.Short bowel syndrome can develop in some serious cases.Gut flora is the largest and most complex micro-ecosystem in human body and has a wide range of functions.Studies have shown that intestinal flora plays an important role in radiation-induced RE.This article summarizes recent research advances in the relationship between RE and gut flora.
2020, 42 (3): 410-416
YE Wei,SUN Mengyang,WANG Xinhua
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF)is a progressive lung disease characterized by pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and pulmonary dysfunction.Cell microenvironment is mainly composed of cell components,extracellular matrix,extracellular regulators,and liquid substances.Changes in microenvironment components are closely related to IPF.This article elaborates the roles of cell microenvironments including cytokines,mesenchymal cells,extracellular matrix,and unfolded proteins in the pathogenesis of IPF.
2020, 42 (3): 417-420
LIU Dongming,XU Hongwei,YI Fang
Cryptococcal encephalitis is a fatal central nervous system infectious disease,whereas anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA)receptor encephalitis(NMDARE)is an autoimmune syndrome associated with psychological symptoms,behavioural abnormalities,seizures,and dyskinesias.Despite their distinct pathologies and pathogenic mechanisms,both of them can lead to cognitive dysfunction and abnormal behaviors,although anti-NMDARE can also have mood and mental disorders as its core manifestations.A patient with nephrotic syndrome accompanied by both cryptococcal encephalitis and anti-NMDARE was treated in our center,which for the first confirmed that these two conditions could coexist in one patient.The underlying mechanism may be similar to that of anti-NMDARE after other infections.
2020, 42 (3): 421-426
HUA Siyi,LIU You,CHEN Zhiye
We reported a case of supratentorial primary central nervous system lymphoma with hyperperfusion.Computed tomography revealed hyperdense lesions on the bilateral centrum semiovale with obvious edema.Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that the lesion presented slightly long and iso-T1 signal and slightly long and long T2 signals;hyperintensity was found on diffusion-weighted imaging,with relatively high apparent diffusion coefficient value compared with the adjacent normal white matter.Contrast-enhanced imaging revealed bilateral evenly enhanced lesions,along with patchy non-enhanced shadows in right-sided lesion.The perfusion-weighted imaging revealed hyperperfusion in bilateral lesions.
2020, 42 (3): 427-430
ZOU Ying,LI Tao,YANG Li,LUO Chuncai,ZHANG Xinghua
Infective endocarditis is a microbial infection of the endocardium and can easily affect heart valve.Its characteristic lesion is vegetation formation,and the shedding of vegetation results in arterial embolism and ischemic necrosis of corresponding tissues and organs.A case of infective endocarditis with multiple extracardiac complications was described in this article.The characteristic ultrasound finding was the vegetation formation in anterior mitral valve.CT and MRI scans revealed involvements in multiple organs and blood vessels,which were manifested as splenic infarction,renal infarction,cerebral infarction,splenic aneurysm,superior mesenteric artery aneurysms,renal artery aneurysms,and distal segment stenosis and occlusion of right middle cerebral artery.