2020, 42 (4): 431-435
MA Tuo,CAO Lixiu,LI Huiju,REN Hongliang,CHEN Dapeng,GAO Yuan,LI Zhidong,ZHAO Xinbin,DONG Siqi
Objective To investigate the differences in energy spectrum CT findings between anterior mediastinal lymphoma and thymic carcinoma. Methods Twenty-two cases of anterior mediastinal lymphoma and 28 cases of thymic carcinoma confirmed by biopsy in Tangshan People’s Hospital were selected.The CT values and changes of iodine content and water content in lesion sites were measured by energy spectrum analysis software.The differences between anterior mediastinal lymphoma and thymic carcinoma were compared. Results The single-energy CT value of 40-80 keV in thymus carcinoma was higher than that in anterior mediastinal lymphoma(P=0.001,P=0.037,P=0.042,P=0.034,P=0.002;P=0.016,P=0.013,P=0.018,P=0.024,P=0.012).The difference in the single-energy CT value of 90-110 keV between anterior mediastinal lymphoma and thymic carcinoma showed no statistical significance(all P>0.05).The concentrations of water in the arterial and venous stages of thymic carcinoma were significantly lower than those in the anterior mediastinal lymphoma(P=0.030,P=0.037),whereas the iodine concentrations were significantly higher(P=0.026,P=0.000). Conclusion Anterior mediastinal lymphoma and thymic carcinoma have remarkably different 40-80 keV single energy CT value and iodine concentration in arterial and venous phases,which may be helpful for the differential diagnosis of these two malignancies.
2020, 42 (4): 436-443
ZHOU Yanlin,DU Xiaogang
Objective To explore the risk factors of acute kidney injury(AKI)in adult primary nephrotic syndrome(PNS). Methods Totally 185 patients with PNS were divided into AKI group(n=51)and non-AKI group(n=134).The demographic data and clinical and histological features at admission were compared between the two groups.The independent risk factors for AKI were evaluated by Logistics regression analysis. Results In 51 PNS patients with AKI,the common pathological types of AKI included minor glomerular abnormalities(29.4%),IgA nephropathy(25.5%),and membranous nephropathy(17.6%).The incidences of renal tubular casts and epithelial vacuoles in the AKI group were significantly higher than those in the non-AKI group(P=0.004,P=0.030).Males were more likely to suffer from AKI than females(P=0.000).Patients in AKI group had significantly lower albumin level(P=0.015)and higher levels of random urine protein,serum creatinine,uric acid,urea nitrogen,and triglyceride than non-AKI group(P=0.030,P=0.000,P=0.000,P=0.000,and P=0.006),and polyserous and oliguria occurred more often in the AKI group(P=0.000,P=0.002).The AKI group had significantly higher incidences of high blood pressure and infections(P=0.035,P=0.000).Multivariate logistics regression analysis showed albumin(<25 g/L),serum creatinine(>96 μmol/L),urea nitrogen(≥6.8 mmol/L),uric acid(≥400 μmol/L),diabetes,infection,and renal tubular casts were the independent risk factors for AKI. Conclusions AKI complicating PNS is associated with a variety of factors.Its independent risk factors include the levles of albumin,serum creatinine,urea nitrogen,and uric acid,diabetes,infections,and renal tubular casts.
2020, 42 (4): 444-451
LIU Dan,XU Jingmei,LIAO Hongfan,WEN Ming
Objective To explore the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient(ADC)histogram analysis for differentiating genetic subtypes of diffuse lower-grade gliomas. Methods A total of 55 patients with WHO grade Ⅱ/Ⅲ diffuse lower-grade gliomas who underwent preoperative routine brain magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion weighted imaging in our center were retrospectively evaluated.Among whom there were 14 patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase(IDH)wild-type gliomas(IDH wt group),19 patients with IDH-mutant 1p19q intact gliomas(IDH mut1p19q int group),and 22 patients with IDH-mutant 1p19q co-deleted gliomas(IDH mut1p19q del group).The whole-lesion ADC values derived from histogram analysis(including ADCmean,ADCminimum,ADC5%,ADC10%,ADC25%,ADC50%,ADC75%,ADC90%,ADC95%,ADCmaximum,mode,range,skewness,kurtosis,standard deviation,inhomogeneity,and entrophy)were measured for each patient.All parameters between the different genetic subtypes were compared by using the Student’s t test or Mann-Whitney U test.Receiver operating curve(ROC)analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of ADC histogram in distinguishing the different genetic subtypes. Results Compared with IDH wt group,the ADC75%(P=0.021),ADC90%(P=0.015),ADC95%(P=0.014),ADCmaximum (P=0.035),range(P=0.009),standard deviation(P=0.001)and inhomogeneity(P=0.001)were significantly lower in IDH mut group;in contrast,the ADCminimum (P=0.031)and kurtosis(P=0.020)of IDH mut group were significantly higher than those in IDH wt group.The ADCmean(P=0.010),ADC5%(P=0.016),ADC10%(P=0.012),ADC25%(P=0.007),ADC50%(P=0.005),ADC75%(P=0.015),and mode(P=0.002)were significantly higher in IDH mut1p19q int group than in IDH mut1p19q del group.Inhomogeneity achieved the highest area under ROC(AUC)(0.811)in differentiating IDH mut gliomas and IDH wt gliomas,with a cutoff value of 0.229;the sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 73.2%.The mode achieved the highest AUC(0.744)in differentiating IDH mut1p19q int gliomas and IDH mut1p19q del gliomas,with a cutoff value was 1448.75×10 -6 mm 2/s;the sensitivity and specificity were 57.9% and 90.9%.Conclusion ADC histograms analysis may be helpful to differentiate genetic subtypes in lower-grade gliomas.
2020, 42 (4): 452-458
ZHANG Xi,ZHOU Jing,DAI Xuemei,HOU Furang,GAO Yuyang,YAN Liuqing,YUAN Ping
Objective To understand the family sex education for young children in rural areas of Sichuan province and analyze the influencing factors. Methods A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select 2246 parents of kindergarten children from rural areas in Sichuan province for a questionnaire-based survey.The Chi-square test and Logistic regression model were used for data analysis. Results It was found 1132(52.33%)parents had implemented family sex education for young children and 1031(47.67%)had not.Young children having asked sex-related questions(OR=1.536,95%CI=1.257-1.878),parents thinking that early childhood sex education is necessary(OR=3.691,95%CI=2.029-6.717),and parents having the intention to know early childhood sex education(OR=1.700,95%CI=1.274-2.269),and kindergarten having implemented early childhood sex education(OR=3.316,95%CI=2.515-4.372)were promoting factors for parents to conduct early childhood sex education,whereas a total annual household income at the middle level(OR=0.664,95%CI=0.456-0.968)was a hindering factor for parents to conduct early childhood sex education. Conclusions Parents of young children in rural areas of Sichuan province have poor awareness of sex education,and the proportion of parents who have never conducted sex education for children is high.The total annual income of the family,whether the children have asked about sex-related questions,parents’ attitude towards early childhood sex education,and whether the kindergarten has conducted the early childhood sex education are important factors that influence the level of children’s family sex education.
2020, 42 (4): 459-467
ZHOU Wei,HU Hongjie,SHEN Bo,SHEN Weiqiang,CHEN Hao,WU Xiao,YAN Qiang,PANG Peipei
Objective To evaluate the correlation between the radiomics signature of hepatobiliary phase imaging of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid(Gd-EOB-DTPA)enhanced magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)and Child-Pugh of liver cirrhosis,establish nomogram prediction model,and assess the predictive value of quantitative assessment of liver reserve function of patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods One hundred patients with liver cirrhosis who met the inclusion criteria were divided into 52 patients with Child-Pugh grade A and 48 patients with Child-Pugh grade B+C according to Child-Pugh classification criteria,and were randomly divided into training set and test set at a proportion of 7∶3.The AK software was used to extract the imaging features of the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI hepatobiliary images of the patients in the training set,and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator feature selection algorithm was used to reduce the dimension of the data,select the features,and construct the radiomics tags.According to the radiomics label Rad-score,a line chart(nomogram)prediction model was established to predict the Child-Pugh B+C level of liver reserve function.The model was applied to the training set and test set respectively,and the diagnostic efficiency was quantitatively evaluated by receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve. Results After dimension reduction and screening of 396 texture feature parameters extracted by AK software,7 image feature parameters were obtained.According to the above characteristics,the radiomics tag Rad-score was constructed and the nomogram prediction model was created.The differences of Rad-score scores between Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B+C groups in training set and test set were statistically analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test(P=0.000, P=0.001).The diagnostic efficacy of nomogram prediction model for predicting Child-Pugh B+C grade of liver reserve function in the ROC curve of training set and test set was 0.88 and 0.86 respectively. Conclusions The nomogram prediction model created according to the radiomics tag Rad-score of patients with liver cirrhosis with different liver reserve functions can be used as a more accurate and reliable auxiliary detection tool for liver reserve function.It provides a new means for clinicians to evaluate liver reserve function more accurately.
2020, 42 (4): 468-476
LI Lijun,YANG Guohui
Objective To establish an improved animal model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture(CLP). Methods Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation group(n=24),intubation group(n=24),CLP group(n=24),and CLP+intubation group(n=24).The mortality rate,abdominal cavity condition,pathological changes and pathological scores of heart,lungs,liver,and kidneys of rats in each group were observed after modeling.Blood samples were obtained from the inferior vena cava for measuring the whole blood cells(WBC)and platelets(PLT)counts and analyzing serum interleukin(IL)-6,tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α,serum troponin T(cTnT),creatine kinase-MB(CK-MB),alanine aminotransferase(ALT),aspartate aminotransferase(AST),total bilirubin(TBIL),creatinine(CREA),and blood urea nitrogen(BUN)levels.Blood gas analysis of the aorta was also performed. Results The mortality rates 24 h after modeling were 0 in sham operation group and intubation group,20.8% in CLP group,and 54.2% in CLP+intubation group.Pathologically,swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart,lungs,liver,and kidneys were seen in the CLP+intubation group,inflammatory cell infiltration in a single organ was seen in most rats in the CLP group,and no obvious swelling and infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the sham-operation group and intubation group.The myocardial histopathology score,lung tissue injury pathology score,and kidney tissue injury pathology score in both the sham-operation group and the intubation group were significantly lower than those in the CLP group and the CLP+intubation group(all P=0.000).TNF-α,PaO2,CK-MB,cTnT,AST,TBIL,BUN,and CREA were significantly different between sham-operation group and intubation group/CLP group/CLP+intubation group and between intubation group and CLP group/CLP+intubation group(all P=0.000).The pH level was significantly different between sham operation group and intubation group/CLP group,between intubation group and CLP group/CLP+intubate group(all P=0.000). Conclusions Although both CLP and CLP+intubation can well mimic the pathophysiological mechanism of sepsis in rats,multiple organ dysfunction occurs in the latter.Thus,CLP+intubation can establish animal models of multiple organ dysfunction caused by sepsis induced by clinically effective abdominal infection.
2020, 42 (4): 477-484
TAO Xuemin,FANG Rui,WU Chongchong,ZHANG Chi,ZHANG Rongguo,YU Pengxin,ZHAO Shaohong
Objectiv To make a preliminary pathological classification of lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground glass nodules(pGGN)on CT by using a deep learning model. Methods CT images and pathological data of 219 patients(240 lesions in total)with pGGN on CT and pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma were collected.According to pathological subtypes,the lesions were divided into non-invasive lung adenocarcinoma group(which included atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma in situ and micro-invasive adenocarcinoma)and invasive lung adenocarcinoma group.First,the lesions were outlined and labeled by two young radiologists,and then the labeled data were randomly divided into two datasets:the training set(80%)and the test set(20%).The prediction results of deep learning were compared with those of two experienced radiologists by using the test dataset. Results The deep learning model achieved high performance in predicting the pathological types(non-invasive and invasive)of pGGN lung adenocarcinoma.The accuracy rate in pGGN diagnosis was 0.8330(95% CI=0.7016-0.9157)for of deep learning model,0.5000(95% CI=0.3639-0.6361)for expert 1,0.5625(95% CI=0.4227-0.6931)for expert 2,and 0.5417(95% CI=0.4029-0.6743)for both two experts.Thus,the accuracy of the deep learning model was significantly higher than those of the experienced radiologists(P=0.002).The intra-observer agreements were good(Kappa values:0.939 and 0.799,respectively).The inter-observer agreement was general(Kappa value:0.667)(P=0.000). Conclusion The deep learning model showed better performance in predicting the pathological types of pGGN lung adenocarcinoma compared with experienced radiologists.
2020, 42 (4): 485-490
LIU Yafei,SHEN Yanjun,YANG Yang,CHAO Lan,YANG Fang
Objective To explore the molecular mechanism of human papillomavirus subtype 16(HPV-16)E7 oncogene-induced DNA re-replication in response to DNA damage. Methods Flow cytometry was performed to examine the cell cycle changes in RPE1 E7 cells stably expressing HPV-16 E7 and its control cell RPE1 Vector after DNA damage.Immunoblotting assay was used to evaluate the early mitotic inhibitor 1(Emi1)expression in RPE1 E7 and RPE1 Vector cells with or without DNA damage.The changes of the proportion of polyploidy was detected by flow cytometry in DNA-damaged RPE1 E7 cells interfered by Emi1 small interfering RNA. Results Compared with the control cells,the proportion of polyploids in RPE1 E7 cells was significantly increased in response to DNA damage(t=6.397,P=0.0031).Emi1 protein expression was significantly increased in DNA damaged RPE1 E7 cells(t=8.241,P=0.0012).The polyploid ratio of RPE1 E7 cells was significantly reduced after Emi1 was interfered by two independent small interfering RNAs(t=2.916,P=0.0434;t=3.452,P=0.0260). Conclusion In response to DNA damage,Emi1 promoted DNA re-replication caused by HPV-16 E7.
2020, 42 (4): 491-496
LI Zhanzhan,LIANG Yan,ZHANG Yongqiang,DU Juan,LIU Haozhe,RUAN Chengwei,WANG Yunlu,GU Guangchao,SUN Hao,CHEN Yu,JIN Zhengyu
Objective To investigate the value of head and neck CT angiography(CTA)in the evaluation of intraoperative hemorrhage of carotid body tumours. Methods Head and neck CTA images of 36 patients with carotid body tumours confirmed by pathology were retrospectively analyzed.Patients were divided into two groups based on the intraoperative bleeding volume:<500 ml and≥500 ml groups.The patient’s age,sex,Shamblin classification,size of the lesion,number of blood supply arteries,course of the disease,plain scan,and enhanced CT value between two groups were compared and analyzed.Logistics regression equation was established based on the CTA parameters with significant differences between the two intraoperative bleeding volume groups,and combined parameter was acquired.The receiver operating characteristic curve was established based on CTA single and combined parameters. Results The bleeding volume during the operation of carotid body tumors was significantly correlated with the age of patients(P=0.019),the maximum diameter of tumours on axial images(P=0.003),the maximum upper and lower diameters(P=0.004),Shamblin classification(P=0.012),and number of blood supply arteries(P<0.001).The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the number of feeding arteries,the maximum diameter of axial images,maximum upper and lower diameters,Shamblin classification,and combined parameters were 0.865,0.781,0.806,0.766,and 0.927,respectively.When the optimal critical value was 0.408,the Youden index was 0.794,and the corresponding accuracy,sensitivity,and specificity were 0.919,0.909,and 0.923,respectively. Conclusions Preoperative head and neck CTA can be used to evaluate the intraoperative blood loss.Combined parameters has the best diagnostic performance compared with single parameters.
2020, 42 (4): 497-503
SHEN Jun,SONG Zhiqiang,SHEN Haishan,LI Chunfeng,RUAN Yingmao,LI Shengwen
Objective To develop an ideal surgical procedure for neobladder reconstruction in experimental porcine models. Methods Six experimental female pigs weighting 28-33 kg underwent transplantation of autologous peritoneum for bladder reconstruction under general anesthesia.The flaps were used to reconstruct the orthotopic neobladder by suturing with the edges of the triangle and neck of the remnant bladder.The ureteral catheters were removed on the 5 th postoperative day and the balloon catheter was removed on the 7 th postoperative day.Voiding behaviour was monitored.The animals were euthanized at week 12 for routine pathology,immunohistochemistry,and electron microscopy. Results All the pigs survived after the surgery,and no postoperative complication such as peritonitis,intestinal obstruction,or urinary fistula was observed.All the peritoneum-ileum composite free valves survived after transplantation.Voiding behaviour was normal after catheter removal,and the urine was clear.At autopsy,reconstructed bladders were healthy.Pathological examination showed the neobladder had been covered by continuous urothelium while the peritoneum disappeared and showed no ileal mucosa regrowth and residual.Scanning electron microscope showed the transitional cells of neobladder were complete and orderly,and the urothelium around suture border was continuous and showed no malposition. Conclusions Reconstruction of bladder by autologous peritoneum and ileal seromuscular flaps is an ideal approach in the experimental pigs as it can prevent regrowth of ileal epithelial cells and avoid the complications of conventional enterocystoplasty.Its clinical application deserves further investigations.
2020, 42 (4): 504-512
LU Yao,LIU Qiaoling,LU Tao,PANG Junyi,HUO Zhen
Objective To explore the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma(FDCS)and the expressions of IgG and IgG4. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical data of 9 pathologically confirmed FDCS cases in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2005 to December 2018.Immunohistochemical staining of IgG and IgG4 were performed,and Epstein-Barr virus(EBV)-encoded RNA(EBER)in situ hybridization were carried out. Results Nine cases of FDCS included 4 men and 5 women aged 16-53 years [mean(38.2±9.7)years].The clinical manifestations included masses,lymph node enlargement,rash,and fever.The tumors were located in lymph node,retroperitoneal region,adrenal gland,neck,axillary region,and liver,respectively.Ultrasound showed clear boundary cystic or solid mass with maximum diameters of 1.5-15.0 cm.Microscopically,the spindle tumor cells were arranged in solid and storiform patterns with abundant and slightly stained cytoplasm,vacuolated nuclei,and small nucleoli.The mitosis was 1-3/10 high power fields,and necrosis was found in 5 cases.Immunohistochemically,the tumor cells were positive for CD21(6/9),CD35(6/9),and CD23(7/9). Conclusions FDCS is a rare malignant tumor,which is easy to be missed.The combination of CD21,CD35,and CD23 is helpful for diagnosis.Hyaline-vascular type Castleman’s disease may be the precursor of FDCS,and there may be only a small number of IgG4-positive plasma cells in FDCS.Surgical resection remains the main treatment for FDCS.
2020, 42 (4): 513-520
MAO Jinlong,XU Yongge,LUO Yongchun,ZHANG Guozhen,LIANG Ming,HU Yefeng,SHEN Chunsen
Objective To compare the short-and long-term effect of two minimal invasive surgical therapies including keyhole approach endoscopic surgery(KAES)and stereotactic aspiration plus urokinase(SAU)in treating basal ganglia hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage(hICH). Methods The clinical data of 117 hICH patients(63 received KAES and 54 received SAU)were retrospectively analyzed.The operation time,blood loss during surgery,and drainage time were compared between two groups.The residual hematoma volume,hematoma clearance rate(HCR),Glasgow coma scale(GCS)score,and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale(NIHSS)score were recorded at baseline and in the ultra-early stage,early stage,and sub-early stage after surgery.The 30-day mortality and serious adverse events were assessed and the 6-month modified Rankin scale(mRS)score was rated.Results Baseline data showed no significant difference between these two groups.Compared with the SAU group,the KAES group had significantly longer operation time,more intraoperative blood loss,and shorter drainage time(all P<0.001).In the ultra-early stage after surgery,HCR was significantly higher in the KAES group(P<0.001),whereas in the early and sub-early stage,HCR showed no significant differences(all P>0.05).In the ultra-early and early stage,the GCS and NIHSS scores showed no significant differences between two groups(all P>0.05),whereas in the sub-early stage,the NIHSS score was better in the SAU group(P=0.034).The 30-day mortality and incidences of serious adverse events showed no significant difference(all P>0.05).The good recovery(mRS≤3)at 6-months follow-up showed no significant difference between the two groups(P=0.413).Conclusions Both KAES and SAU are safe and effective in treating basal ganglia hICH.In the ultra-early stage after surgery,KAES achieves better residual hematoma volume and HCR,and patients undergoing SAU quickly catch up.The short-and long-term effectiveness of SAU is comparable or even superior to KAES.
Health for All Contributes to Comprehensive Well-off Column
2020, 42 (4): 521-530
ZHANG An,LI Yanping,QIU Min,LIU Huabao,CHEN Zhongpei,WAN Peng,TAO Yang,WANG Hui,WEI Darong,LI Quntang,QIN Yalan
Objective To explore the optimal therapy time for the treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)by traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)and its influence on the therapeutic effect and prognosis. Methods The clinical data,laboratory findings,and outcomes of 64 patients with severe COVID-19 treated with TCM and western medicine in Chongqing from January 20,2020, to March 11,2020 were retrospectively analyzed.Patients were divided into early intervention group[TCM was initiated within 3 days (including day 3) after the first diagnosis of severe type/critical type COVID-19]and late intervention group[TCM was initiated after 7 days (including day 7) after the first diagnosis of severe type /critical type COVID-19].The changes in clinical parameters during the course of disease were compared between the two groups. Results On day 14,the oxygenation index was 292.5(252.0,351.0)mmHg in the early intervention group,which was significantly higher than that in the late intervention group [246.0(170.0,292.5)mmHg](P=0.005).The length of hospital stay [(18.56±1.11)d vs.(24.87±1.64)d,P=0.001],duration of ICU stay [(14.12±0.91)d vs.(20.00±1.53)d,P=0.000] and time to negativity [(16.77±1.04)d vs.(22.48±1.66)d,P=0.001] in the early intervention group were significantly shorter than those in the late intervention group.The intubation rate(7.3%)in the early intervention group was significantly lower than that in the late intervention group(30.4%)(P=0.028). Conclusion Early TCM therapy within three days after a diagnosis of severe COVID-19 can shorten the length of hospital stay,duration of ICU stay,and time to negativity and decrease intubation rate.
2020, 42 (4): 531-534
FAN Jing,LIN Hongyi,QIN Mingwei
Telemedicine is one of the five key components of the “Internet Plus Healthcare”.Due to its high speed,real-timeness,low cost,and wide spread,telemedicine is highly feasible in the prevention and control of major infectious diseases.This article introduces the practiceof telemedicine in Peking Union Medical College Hospital during the cornavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)epidemic,during which the network resources were applied to break geographical restrictions and resolve communication barriers between hospitals and departments.This article summarizes the telemedicine application before,during and after COVID-19 control and elucidates how to build a telemedicine prevention and control system for infectious diseases,with an attempt to further improve telemedicine and is application in the public health emergency system in China.
2020, 42 (4): 535-539
YU Yanqin,HAO Jinqi,XU Huifang,WEI Mengna,QIAO Youlin
Cervical cancer is the second most common malignant tumor in women worldwide.The burden of cervical cancer is particularly heavy in less developed countries as the malignancy brings huge pain to the patients and their family members and causes huge losses to social development and global health.However,cervical cancer is a preventable and curable disease.While screening and human papillomavirus vaccination in developed countries have remarkably lowered the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer,there is still a far way to go to achieve the prevention and treatment of this disease.The multidisciplinary prevention and control programs slightly differ in different countries due to diverse economic and health conditions.The general principle is to vaccinate the young females and to implement a comprehensive strategy including human papillomavirus vaccine vaccination,screening,early diagnosis,and early treatment in adults.
2020, 42 (4): 540-545
NIU Zihan,ZHAO Chenyang,JIANG Yuxin
Ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles combined with low frequency ultrasound named as low-frequency ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction technology has become an effective and non-invasive anti-tumor therapy for deep tumors.It can enhance the efficacies of chemotherapy,gene therapy,immunotherapy,and anti-angiogenic therapy by improving cell membrane permeability and destroying tumor neovasculature.It can be applied to sonodynamic therapy and realize multimodal synergistic therapy on the basis of nanoparticles,which increases the anti-tumor efficiency and offers a promising target therapy for tumors.
2020, 42 (4): 546-551
YANG Bing,MA Tianyu,MA Wei
Fracture healing has long been a major concern for orthopedists.Currently,about 10% of fracture patients still have poor fracture healing or bone nonunion.In recent years,research has found that nerve growth factor(NGF)can promote fracture healing.This article reviews the mechanism and research progress of NGF in promoting fracture healing.NGF can promote vascular regeneration and nerve growth at callus and plays an important role in the proliferation and migration of bone cells.New animal experiments and clinical trials have confirmed the role of NGF in promoting fracture healing and further revealed its possible mechanism of action.Further research on NGF can provide new ideas for promoting fracture healing,especially for treating nonunion.
2020, 42 (4): 552-558
LI Teng,XU Ying,JIANG Qiuyan,ZHAO Yucheng,WU Zhizheng,TIAN Hu
Telocytes are novel interstitial cells with a specific structure:the body has an elliptical shape or a triangle shape,with slender and thin protrusions that connect with other cells to form a complex 3D network.This article summarizes the structural characteristics and identification methods of Telocytes and demonstrates their potential functions as a new target for disease prevention and treatment.
2020, 42 (4): 559-561
TANG Hongyan,XIAO Bin,LIU Xin,YANG Guilan
Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of hair follicle sebaceous gland units,with an incidence of up to 85% in adolescents.The pathogenesis is closely related to androgen,sebum secretion,lipophilic microbial infection,and immune-inflammatory reaction.This article reviews the signaling pathways related to acne from the aspects of inflammatory signaling pathways and sebum secretion pathways.
2020, 42 (4): 562-565
LIU Xiumei,DU Liping,LIU Bao
Oral anticoagulants play an important role in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases.Warfarin,a traditional oral anticoagulant,is limited in clinical use due to its limitations such as narrow therapeutic window and requirements on frequent monitoring and dose adjustment.Direct oral anticoagulants(DOACs)such as dabigatran,rivaroxaban,apixaban,and edoxaban are increasingly used to prevent and treat venous thrombosis or thrombus formation.However,recent studies have documented inter-individual variability in plasma drug levels of DOACs.This article summarizes the recent advances in the pharmacogenomics of DOACs.
2020, 42 (4): 566-569
YAN Shi,FENG Hongwei,CAO Liqiu,FENG Qing
The ganglioneuroma is a benign tumor originating from sympathetic ganglion cells.It often locates in the posterior mediastinum,retroperitoneum,and adrenal medulla.The intraspinal ganglioneuromas is relatively rare in clinical practice,which mainly locates in the cervical and thoracolumbar segments.A patient with main symptom of cough was examined by magnetic resonance imaging before operation in our center.Intraspinal ganglioneuromas was confirmed in the left intervertebral cavity area.Total resection of the tumor via the posterior median approach was performed.HE staining showed the mature ganglion cells were scattered.The patient was followed up for three months and no tumor recurrence occured.
2020, 42 (4): 570-572
WANG Zhiqiang,KAI Jinyun,CHEN Huaying
This article reports a patient who suffered from Wolffian adnexal tumor.We also briefly elucidate the pathogenesis,clinicopathological features,diagnosis,differentiation,and treatment of Wolffian adnexal tumor,with an attempt to increase the awareness of the disease and reduce misdiagnosis.